Maintenance of diesel engine D-245
To ensure long-term and trouble-free operation of the diesel engine, the following basic principles should be adhered to:
- - periodically check the state of fastening of assembly units;
- - before starting the diesel engine, check the oil level in the diesel crankcase and coolant in the expansion tank;
- - after starting, before turning on the load, let the diesel engine run for 2.3 minutes, first at the minimum idle speed with a gradual increase to the maximum frequency;
- - load the diesel engine only after the temperature of the coolant in the cooling system rises to 40°C;
- - before putting the new diesel engine into operation under load, run it in;
- - idling a diesel engine for more than 15 minutes is not recommended;
- - avoid overloading the diesel engine during operation and monitor the readings of control devices;
- - do not stop the diesel engine by blocking the suction path except in emergency cases;
- - use fuel and oil only of those brands recommended by the manufacturer;
- - keep the diesel engine clean, prevent leakage of fuel, oil and coolant, or leakage of untreated air into the cylinders;
- - diesel can operate at longitudinal and transverse inclinations of no more than 35°;
- - before stopping the diesel engine after removing the load, let it run for 3-5 minutes, first at medium and then at minimum idle speed to reduce the temperature of the coolant and oil, then stop the diesel engine by moving the fuel supply control lever to the position , corresponding to the cessation of fuel supply (failure to comply with this procedure may lead to failure of the turbocharger).
Maintenance of diesel mechanisms consists of regularly adjusting the gap between the valves and rocker arms, as well as tightening the cylinder head bolts after the first 4,000 km of the vehicle.
Procedure for adjusting valves and tightening cylinder head mountings.
Lubricating system maintenance
The oil level in the diesel crankcase must be checked daily using the oil level indicator located on the right side of the diesel cylinder block.
The oil level should be between the lower and upper indicator marks.
The check should be carried out no earlier than 3-5 minutes after stopping the diesel engine, when the oil has completely drained into the crankcase.
It is not allowed to operate a diesel engine with the oil level in the crankcase below the lower and above the upper mark on the indicator.
To change the oil in a diesel crankcase, you need to unscrew the oil crankcase plug on a warm diesel engine. After all the oil has flowed out of the crankcase, tighten the plug.
Diesel oil must be filled through the oil filler pipe to the level of the upper mark.
Cleaning the centrifugal oil filter rotor must be done simultaneously with changing the oil. To do this you need to do the following:
- - unscrew nut 1 (Fig. 1) securing the centrifugal oil filter cap and remove it;
- - stop the rotor from turning, to do this, insert a screwdriver or rod between the filter housing and the bottom of the rotor and, turning the nut 4 securing the rotor bowl with a wrench, remove the rotor bowl 3;
- - check the condition of the rotor protective mesh and, if necessary, clean and rinse it;
- - use a scraper to remove a layer of deposits from the inner walls of the rotor bowl.
Before assembling the cup with the rotor housing, the rubber O-ring must be lubricated with engine oil. Then combine the balancing marks on the cup and the rotor body.
The cup fastening nut must be tightened with slight force until the cup is completely seated on the rotor.
- - After assembly, the rotor should rotate easily without jamming when pushed by hand.
After this, you need to replace the centrifugal oil filter cap and tighten the cap nut with a torque of 35-50 Nm.
When installing an oil filter with a paper filter element on a diesel engine, it must be replaced, as described in the article “ZIL-5301 oil system filter.”
Cooling system maintenance
To check the coolant level, you need to open the tap located in the front part of the expansion tank (for cars manufactured up to 2000).
The flow of coolant indicates that its level is normal.
On cars of recent years of production, coolant must be poured into the expansion tank according to the marks.
The tension of the fan drive belt is checked after 4000 km of mileage of the car or bus.
The tension of the fan belt is considered normal if its deflection on the crankshaft pulley - generator pulley is within 12-17 mm when pressed with a force of 40 N.
The cooling system must be filled with low-freezing coolant or clean soft water.
Hard water should be softened by adding 10-12 g of soda ash per 10 liters of water.
Normal operating coolant temperature should be 75-95°C.
If the temperature rises above normal, you should check the coolant level in the expansion tank, the tightness of the radiator and the tension of the fan belt.
If necessary, the cooling system should be flushed to remove contaminants.
For washing, use a solution of 50-60 g of soda ash per 1 liter of water.
The system must be flushed in the following order:
- - pour 2 liters of kerosene into the radiator and fill the system with the prepared solution;
- - start the diesel engine and run for 8-10 hours, then drain the solution and rinse the cooling system with clean water.
Fuel system maintenance
Maintenance of the fuel system consists of checking the condition of the system devices, the reliability of their fastening, cleaning, washing or replacing filters, draining sediment from the coarse filters (FGO) and fine filters (FTO) of the fuel and the fuel tank.
During winter operation, it is recommended to drain sediment from the fuel system more often in a volume of 100-300 ml.
If the sediment from the tank is not drained in a timely manner, the service life of the FTO filter elements, the fuel priming pump and the manual fuel pump is significantly reduced.
The increased water content in the fuel during winter operation causes clogging of the fuel intake with ice crystals, which leads to diesel failure during startup.
Adding gasoline to diesel fuel significantly reduces the service life of fuel equipment and diesel.
Under normal operating conditions during maintenance-1, it is necessary to drain the sediment from the FGO housing.
When refueling a car tank with unsettled fuel, drain the sediment from the fuel filter at least once a week.
When carrying out maintenance, it is necessary to wash the filter element in clean diesel fuel, and then blow it with compressed air under a pressure of 0.3-0.4 MPa.
When operating a vehicle in dusty conditions, the FGO must be washed every 350-400 km.
When filling car tanks with unsettled fuel, the filter element should be replaced when the diesel power decreases, but at least during routine maintenance.
To drain the sediment from the FGO, you need to unscrew plug 1 (see Fig. 2) at the bottom of the filter bowl and drain the sediment until clean fuel appears. Then tighten the cap.
To clean the filter you need to:
- - drain fuel from the filter through drain plug 1;
- - unscrew the four bolts and remove the cap 2;
- - wash the mesh of filter element 4 with gasoline or diesel fuel, blow with compressed air under a pressure of 0.3-0.4 MPa;
- - reassemble in reverse order.
To drain the sediment from the fine fuel filter (Fig. 3), you need to unscrew plug 4 at the bottom of the filter and drain the sediment until clean fuel appears. Then tighten the cap.
To replace the FTO filter element you need to:
- - drain the fuel from the filter by unscrewing the plug at the bottom of the housing;
- - unscrew the nuts securing cover 1 (Fig. 3) and remove the cover;
- - remove filter element 2 from the housing;
- - rinse the internal cavity of filter housing 3;
- - assemble the filter with a new filter element;
- - unscrew the air removal plug on the fuel pump body by 1-2 turns and the fitting on the fine fuel filter;
- - bleed the system using a fuel pump (Fig. 4), closing sequentially when fuel appears, plug 3 on the fuel pump body and plug 1 on the fine filter
Maintenance of fuel injection pumps is carried out at the stand.