The suspension is a combination of guiding devices and elastic elements that connect the wheels to the frame;

- serves to ensure the stability and smooth running of the car, as it softens the impacts perceived by the wheels from bumps in the road, it is also designed to transfer all the forces and moments acting between the wheels and the car frame.

The front suspension of KamAZ vehicles is leaf spring, dependent, in which the movement of one wheel, caused by road irregularities, is transmitted to the other wheel; made on leaf springs.

The elastic element of the suspension is a spring.

It not only softens the shocks perceived by the wheels of the car from road irregularities, but also acts as a guide to the front axle, transfers traction and braking forces from the wheels to the frame of the car.

Springs are assembled from curved steel sheets of different lengths (the higher the sheet is, the longer it is).

The leaf with the greatest length is called the root.

KAMAZ front suspension

The front axle is suspended from the frame spars on two springs using brackets 5 and 13 (fig.).

The front end of the spring is connected to the bracket 5 of the frame with the help of eyelet 1 and pin 7.

The detachable ear 1 is attached to the main leaf of the spring with a bolt 2 and an overlay 22. which is fixed on the ear with two bolts 21. A sleeve 3 is pressed into the ear.

Pin 7 connecting the ear to the bracket is fixed with two bolts 6.

The fingers are lubricated through grease fitting 4.

The rear end of the spring is sliding and, through the lining 12 riveted on the root sheet, rests on a replaceable cracker 14 located on the bracket.

To protect the walls of the bracket 13 from wear, inserts 15 are installed on the fingers 16 of the crackers, tightened with a bolt 17 through the spacer sleeve 18.

The spring is composed of 15 sheets.

The root leaf of the spring is rectangular, and the rest are T-shaped. This allows you to reduce the mass of the spring while maintaining its characteristics.

A pad 9 is installed in the middle part of the spring, through which the spring is attached to the front axle with two ladders 11. The overlay has a stamping that fits into the recess of the first sheet.

Each leaf of the spring with its protrusion enters the recess of the underlying leaf, and the protrusion of the last leaf enters the corresponding recess of the shock absorber bracket 8, fixed, in turn, on the front axle beam.

The spring sheets are additionally held against lateral displacement by clamps 19.

An additional elastic element of the front suspension is a rubber buffer 10, bolted to the frame side member. It limits the suspension travel and increases the durability of the spring.

In the absence of a buffer, the durability of the spring is reduced by a factor of three.

In the front suspension of off-road vehicles with a 6X6 wheel arrangement, two buffers are used for each spring.

To protect the walls of the bracket 13 from wear on the fingers 16, crackers and inserts 15 are installed, pulled together by a bolt 17 through a spacer sleeve 18.

The spring is made up of 15 sheets. The root leaf of the spring is rectangular in section, and the rest are T-shaped. This allows you to reduce the mass of the spring while maintaining its characteristics.

A pad 9 is installed in the middle part of the spring, through which the spring is attached to the front axle with two ladders 11. The overlay has a stamping that fits into the recess of the first sheet.

Each leaf of the spring with its protrusion enters the recess of the underlying leaf, and the protrusion of the last leaf enters the corresponding recess of the shock absorber bracket 8, fixed, in turn, on the front axle beam.

The spring sheets are additionally held against lateral displacement by clamps 19.

An additional elastic element of the front suspension is a rubber buffer 10, bolted to the frame side member. It limits the suspension travel and increases the durability of the spring.

In the absence of a buffer, the durability of the spring is reduced by a factor of three.

In the front suspension of off-road vehicles with a 6X6 wheel arrangement, two buffers are used for each spring.

The vibrations of the spring dampen slowly, as they are damped by friction between its sheets.

For faster damping of vibrations and increasing the durability of the springs, shock absorbers are installed in the front suspension.

The principle of operation of shock absorbers is that as a result of relative movements of the frame and unsprung parts of the car, the liquid is distilled from one cavity of the shock absorber to another through small flow sections, absorbing the energy of oscillatory movements.

Shock absorbers are filled with a special liquid, the viscosity of which changes little depending on the ambient temperature environment.

The oscillating motion of the frame can be represented as consisting of two movements: the spring compression stroke, when the frame and axle approach, and the rebound stroke, when the frame and axle diverge.

Double-acting shock absorbs both rebound and compression vibrations.

The resistance created by the shock absorber during compression is approximately three times less than the rebound resistance, since the shock absorber must dampen mainly the free vibrations of the suspension during the rebound stroke and not increase the stiffness of the springs at the same time.

KAMAZ front suspension shock absorber

The piston 14, fixed on the rod 19 with a nut, moves in the working cylinder 18 filled with shock absorber fluid.

The piston has two rows of through holes, evenly spaced along two circles with different diameters.

The holes located along the larger circumference are closed from above by the bypass valve plate 5, pressed by a conical spring.

The holes located on the smaller circle are blocked from below by the rebound damper discs 7, pressed by the coil spring 8.

Stem 19 moves in guide 20. The sealing of the rod is carried out by stuffing box 21, rubber stuffing box 3, felt stuffing boxes 24.

The stuffing box 3 is placed in the housing (cage) 23 and is pressed through the washer by a conical spring 22. Felt stuffing boxes are installed to protect the stuffing box 3 from dirt and dust.

To facilitate the operation of the stuffing box 3 and increase its reliability, there are holes A in the guide, through which the fluid that has seeped through the gap between the stem and the guide is drained into the tank, as a result of which the fluid pressure on the stuffing box is reduced.

The reservoir is sealed with gland 4, and the surface of the rod when it exits the cylinder is protected from damage by a casing.

The stem gland and the body are pressed with the nut 2 of the tank.

At the bottom of the cylinder there is a compression valve, consisting of a body, a poppet bypass valve 9, pressed by a conical spring, disc compression valves 10, pressed by a cylindrical spring.

In the valve body there are holes 13, located in circles with different diameters.

A shock absorber exerts the greatest resistance when stretched (rebound stroke), when the sprung part of the car moves away from its unsprung part.

When stretched, the fluid above the shock absorber piston experiences compression. The bypass valve 5 closes, and the liquid flows through the internal holes 15 in the piston to the release valve 7.

Due to the force of the coil spring, a certain damper resistance is created.

At the same time, the bypass valve 9 is open and freely passes through the holes 13 from the cavity of the reservoir into the cavity of the working cylinder a part of the liquid equal to the volume of that part of the rod 19 that is currently being withdrawn from the working cylinder.

When the spring is compressed, the shock absorber piston moves down, the bypass valve 5 opens and the liquid flows freely through the outer row of holes 6 into the over-piston space.

In this case, the liquid in a volume equal to the input part of the rod is forced into the tank through the internal holes in the housing, having previously overcome the resistance of the spring 11 of the compression valve 10.

The bypass valve 9 is closed by fluid pressure, and the force of the spring 11 creates the necessary resistance for fluid to flow during the compression stroke.

When the car is moving along a road with small obstacles, the amplitude of suspension oscillations is insignificant, and the resistance created by the shock absorber is small.

In this case, the liquid flows through the calibrated holes in the throttle discs of the rebound and compression valves.

On rough roads, the amplitude of suspension oscillation increases, while the shock absorber must provide more resistance to prevent the vehicle from rocking.

Due to the increase in the piston stroke speed, the fluid pressure and, consequently, the force developed by the shock absorber increase.

Both during smooth and sharp compression and rebound strokes, the impact energy is absorbed by the shock absorber, which leads to a rapid damping of suspension vibrations.

The front suspension of KamAZ-53212 vehicles also has an anti-roll bar, which increases the angular stiffness of the suspension, reducing the roll angle of the sprung part of the car, and increases the vehicle's stability when driving.

KAMAZ front suspension

Rod 7 (fig. 3.) of the stabilizer in the middle part is fixed on the front axle beam in rubber bearings with clips, pads and stepladders.

Barbell racks 2 ball Nirno connected with brackets mounted on the side members of the frame. The rack frame brackets are also pivotally connected.

When lifting the wheels and hitting an uneven road, the bar turns freely in the clips and the stabilizer does not work.

When the car frame is tilted sideways, the racks move one relative to the other in a vertical plane and the bar, twisting, prevents the frame from tilting relative to the road.