Scheme of the lubrication system is shown in fig. 1.
Oil pressure in the lubrication system of a warm engine at low crankshaft speed 550–650 min -1
- for engines of models 414, 4178; 700–750 min -1
- for engines of model 4218) at idle with the oil cooler tap open, there must be at least 39 kPa (0.4 kgf / cm 2);
- on a cold engine, the pressure can reach 441–490 kPa (4.5–5.0 kgf / cm 2);
- at a vehicle speed of 45 km/h, the pressure should be 196–392 kPa (2.0–4.0 kgf/cm 2), and in hot summer weather at least 147 kPa (1 .5 kgf/cm 2).
A pressure in the lubrication system less than the indicated values indicates a malfunction in the engine.
In this case, the operation of the engine must be stopped until the malfunction is eliminated
fig. 1. Scheme of the engine lubrication system: 1 - oil pump; 2 - crankcase drain plug; 3 - oil receiver; 4 - pressure reducing valve; 5 - hole for lubrication of timing gears; 6 - sensor signal lamp emergency oil pressure; 7 - oil pressure indicator sensor; 8 - oil cooler tap; 9 - oil cooler; 10 - full-flow oil filter
To cool the oil in the lubrication system, an oil cooler is installed, which is turned on by opening the tap when the air temperature is above 20 ° C.
At lower temperatures, the radiator should be turned off.
However, regardless of the air temperature, when driving in difficult conditions (with a heavy load and high engine speed), it is also necessary to open the oil cooler valve.
Fig. 2. Engine (left view): 1 – fuel fine filter; 2 - oil filler cap; 3 - oil level indicator; 4 - rocker cover; 5 – a head of the block of cylinders; 6 - sensor-distributor; 7 - starter; 8 - clutch housing; 9 - the lower part of the clutch housing; 10 - fuel pump; 11 – engine mount bracket
Keep the oil level in the engine crankcase close to the “P” mark on the oil measuring rod 3 (see Fig. 2).
Check the oil level 2–3 minutes after stopping a warm engine.
Do not pour oil above the “P” mark, as this will lead to an increase in oil splashing and, as a result, to coking of the rings, carbon formation in the combustion chamber of the cylinder head and on the piston bottoms, oil leakage through the oil seals and gaskets.
Lowering the oil level below the "O" mark can damage the engine bearings.
With an oil pressure difference of 58–73 kPa (0.6–0.7 kgf/cm 2) before and after the filter.
To replace the filter, unscrew it by turning it counterclockwise.
When installing the oil filter, make sure that the rubber seal is in the special groove of the filter housing.
While operating the vehicle, monitor the operation of the oil pressure sensors. The emergency oil pressure sensor is triggered when the pressure in the system drops to 39–78 kPa (0.4–0.8 kgf/cm 2).
When the ignition is turned on, the emergency oil pressure lamp lights up, and goes out after the engine is started.
The burning of the lamp in operating modes indicates a malfunction of the sensor or the engine lubrication system.
Fig. 3. Scheme of ventilation of the crankcase of the engine: 1 - vacuum regulator; 2,3 - pipelines
If oil consumption is increased (and there is no leakage), check the crankcase ventilation system (Fig. 3) and the condition of the sealing caps, valves and cylinder-piston group.