During operation, it is necessary to regularly check the oil level in the pump tank and wash the pump filters at the time specified in the chemotological map
Daily by visual inspection, check the tightness of the connections and hoses of the hydraulic steering system
For the hydraulic system, only clean, filtered oil should be used, indicated in the chemotological map.
It is necessary to fill in oil through a funnel with a double mesh and a filler filter installed in the neck of the pump reservoir cap.
The use of contaminated oil causes steering wheel jamming and rapid wear of pump and steering gear parts.
When checking the oil level, the front wheels of the car must be set in a straight-line position.
Before removing the filler cap to check the oil level, add it or change it, the plug or cap must be thoroughly cleaned of dirt and rinsed.
The oil is added while the engine is idling to the level between the indicator marks.
Power steering pump filters should be washed in gasoline.
In case of significant clogging of the filters with resinous deposits, they must be additionally washed with solvent No. 646.
The articulated joints of the rods are regularly lubricated through grease fittings until a fresh layer of lubricant is squeezed out from under the rubber seals of the hinges.
Daily, by external inspection, it is necessary to check the fastening of steering parts and their cotter pin:
- steering bipod on the shaft, nuts of ball pins of steering rods, levers in steering knuckles,
- threaded tie rod caps
- steering wheel on steering column shaft.
If the fastening is unreliable and their pinning is poor, the parts may come apart when the car is moving, which can lead to an accident.
Periodically, it is necessary to check the absence of play in the steering rod joints, joints and splines of the cardan shaft, as well as the free play of the steering wheel, which should not exceed 25 ° (with the engine running).
Failures in the steering system are manifested in a decrease in vehicle stability, when additional steering wheel work is required to maintain it, usually this is due to an increase in steering wheel free play.
The increased free play of the steering wheel is due to increased clearances in the joints of the parts from the wheels of the steering mechanism and in the mechanism itself.
The amount of free play of the steering wheels is also affected by a violation of the adjustment of the chassis, wear of the bearings of the front wheel hubs and bushings of the pivots, articulated joints of the rods, etc.
To adjust the free play of the steering wheel, first of all, it is necessary to eliminate the backlash in the steering gear.
If there is no play in the drive, then the steering mechanism may be the cause of the increased free play of the steering wheel. It needs to be adjusted.
A sharp increase in effort on the steering wheel when driving a car is usually due to malfunctions in the hydraulic part of the steering.
In particular, there may be air in the hydraulic system, self-loosening of the safety valve seat or hanging of the pump bypass valve. Oil leaks are also possible.
Checking and adjusting the steering gear are carried out with the longitudinal link disconnected and the engine off.
The force on the steering wheel rim is measured with a dynamometer in its various positions.
When turning the steering wheel more than two turns from the middle position, the force should be within 6-16 N.
When turning the steering wheel ¾ turn from the middle position, the force should not exceed 23 N.
With the steering wheel passing through the middle position, the force on the rim should be 4-6 N more than in the second position, but not exceed 28 N.
The adjustment of these parameters begins in the middle position by shifting the gear sector while turning the adjusting screw in the steering gear cover.
Turning the screw clockwise increases the steering force when turning the steering wheel, while turning it in the opposite direction decreases it.
Reducing the force of turning the steering wheel in the middle position indicates wear of the steering gear in the gearing, while the car does not “hold the road” well.
The discrepancy between the forces on the steering wheel rim in the first position indicates the need to adjust the propeller thrust bearings.
The bearings are adjusted by tightening the nut with the front cover removed.
Change in force on the steering wheel rim in the second position may be caused by wear or damage to parts of the ball screw.
To eliminate this malfunction, a complete disassembly of the steering mechanism is required.
In the steering gear, the toe-in and the maximum angles of rotation of the steered wheels are checked and, if necessary, adjusted.
To check the toe-in of the steered wheels, it is necessary to install the car on a horizontal platform in a position for straight-line movement, check and bring the air pressure in the tires to normal.
Install a telescopic ruler in front of the front axle beam horizontally between the rims at the height of the wheel axles and measure the distance A
To eliminate the influence of wheel runout on the measurement results, move the car forward so that the ruler is installed behind the axle at the same height, and take a second measurement B.
The difference between the second and first measurements on a KamAZ-5320 car should be within 1-3 mm, on KamAZ-4310 cars - 1-2 mm.
Wheel toe-in is adjusted by changing the length of the tie rod, rotating it with a pipe wrench with loosened coupling bolts of the tips.
Since the curved transverse link of the KamAZ-4310 cannot be rotated, its length is changed by rotating the tips.
To do this, in addition to loosening the tie bolts, it is necessary to disconnect them from the steering knuckle levers.
In one revolution, the left end of the rod moves along the thread by 2 mm, and the right end by 1.5 mm.
It must be borne in mind that the trouble-free and efficient operation of the steering is determined not only by the serviceability of its constituent elements, but also by the correct operation of other components (assembly units) of the car, especially its carrier system.