A two-pole two-brush generator G130-G is installed on a GAZ-5ZA car (Fig. 1), and a G130-V is installed on a GAZ-66 car
Direct current generators, open type, designed for maximum current output of 28 A at a voltage of 12-15 V.
On parts of cars, generators G 130-E are used, which have shielded terminals.
To make it easier to inspect the generator, remove the protective tape. Start inspection with the collector, brushes and brush holders. At the same time, you need to make sure that the brushes are intact, do not hang in the brush holders and are firmly in contact with the collector.
Check the tension of the brush springs. As the brushes wear, the tension of the springs may decrease.
You can adjust the spring tension by bending the spring stop. Measure the pressure of the brushes with a spring dynamometer.
Blow out the generator from the collector side with compressed air; Wipe a slightly dirty collector with a clean cloth slightly dampened with gasoline.
Smooth a heavily soiled collector with slight burning and small roughness with glass paper, grit 80 or 100, rotating the anchor by hand (you cannot use emery cloth).
For a generator with a significantly worn or burnt collector, grind the collector. Clean the working surface of the brushes with a cloth lightly dampened with gasoline.
In case of incomplete contact with the commutator, grind the brushes.
Carefully check the alternator bearings for binding. Replace bearings that are seized.
Generator malfunctions and how to fix them
- Causes of malfunction
Battery not charging
- Brush hanging
Clean the brush holders from dirt, check the force of the brush springs
- Collector burning
Clean or, if necessary, grind the manifold
- Open excitation circuit
Solder lead or replace coil
- Anchor chain break
Replace or repair anchor
- Interturn short circuit of the armature
Replace the defective anchor.
- Anchor touching the poles
Check bearings and their seats, replace damaged parts
- Unreliable contact in the shielded connectors of the G13O-E generator
Troubleshoot by replacing the circlips that compress the connector sockets
Quick wear of the brushes:
- Collector runout increase
Turn and grind the manifold
Squeak in the generator or abnormal noise:
- Poorly lapped brushes
Lap the brushes
- Lack of lubrication in bearings
- Anchor touching the poles
Check bearings, seats, damaged parts, replace
- Bearing wear
- Seizure in the bearing
- Development of a bearing seat
Replace caps or anchor
Increased anchor end play:
- Bearing wear
Breakage of the bracket and its fastening paws. Frequent loosening of the generator:
- Increased pulley imbalance
Check the imbalance of the pulley, if it exceeds 25 Gcm, balance it
- The presence of dents on the water pump pulley
Replace damaged pulley
Strong generator heating:
- Violation of adjustment and sintering of contacts at the voltage regulator or current limiter
Check the regulator relay and fix the problem
Disassemble the generator to be repaired in the following order.
Remove the protective tape and brushes.
Shine the bearing cover I unscrew the nut securing the rear end of the armature shaft.
Unscrew the clamping screws of the generator and remove the cover from the manifold side using a puller (fig. 2).
Remove the anchor with the cover on the pulley side from the housing.
Remove the pulley from the anchor with a puller, and then unscrew the screws of the bearing mounting plates and remove the cover.
If necessary, in the device, unscrew the screws securing the poles and remove the excitation coils (Fig. 3).
Inspection and Hull check
Using the 533 tool or a test lamp connected to the AC mains, check that the field coils and terminals are not shorted to the housing.
When checking with a test lamp, connect it to the "Ш" terminal and the housing.
Then, from the “Sh” terminal, switch the control lamp to the “I” terminal. In this case, the tips disconnected from the brush holders should not touch the body.
In both cases, the lamp should be off. If the lamp is on, this indicates a short circuit in the excitation winding or terminal to the housing. In this case, remove the field windings and repair the damage.
Replace damaged insulating gaskets and terminal bushings.
Then check the integrity of the excitation winding with a test lamp. To do this, connect a test lamp to the "Ш" terminal and the tip of the wire from the excitation winding.
When the winding is working properly, the lamp should be on.
Check the excitation windings for the absence of interturn short circuits. This check must be carried out on the 533. Exciter coils can be checked with an ohmmeter.
The resistance of both coils should be 7.6 - 8.4 ohms. Excitation coils with interturn short circuits must be replaced.
At the poles, there should be no traces of the anchor touching them. If there are interferences, check the covers and bearings and replace if necessary.
Inspection and testing of lids
Using tool 533 or a test lamp, check that the insulated brush holder is not shorted to the cover on the collector side. With good insulation, the lamp should not burn.
The bearing on the collector side of the cover should enter freely, but without noticeable slack.
The diameter of the bearing hole should be 35 +0.03mm. If the diameter of the bearing hole is higher than specified or the insulated brush holder closes, then the cover must be replaced.
Make sure the bearing in the pulley side of the cap is tight (press fit). The bore diameter for the bearing should be 47+0.0З mm.
Inspection and testing of the anchor. Check the generator armature for the absence of interturn short circuits (Fig. 4), as well as winding short circuits on the iron package on the 533 device.
In case of damage, the anchor must be replaced.
If, upon inspection of the armature collector, it is found that it is dirty and has signs of burning and uneven wear along the length, it should be cleaned with fine glass sandpaper with a grit of 80 or 100.
To clean the collector, fasten the anchor to the front cover in a vise and, turning the anchor slowly, clean the collector with sandpaper.
If the collector has severe wear and surface runout, grind it on a special GARO machine or on a lathe.
After turning, check the beating of the collector with an indicator.
Beating the collector above 0.03 mm leads to rapid burning of the collector and wear of the brushes, especially at high engine speeds.
On the machined collector, cut the insulation to a depth of 0.8 mm in a fixture or with a hacksaw blade sharpened on both sides to 0.8 mm. After trimming, sand the collector with fine glass sand 100.
Inspection and check of the brush assembly
To check the brushes, assemble the anchor with the cover on the commutator side.
Check whether the brushes are sticking in the brush holders, as well as the condition and amount of wear of the brushes, and the pressure force of the brush springs.
With a weak pressure of the brushes, sparking increases and the collector burns.
Excessive brush pressure causes the commutator to overheat and wear out the brushes. The pressure of the springs on the brushes should be in the range of 800 - 1300 G.
When measuring pressure, put a strip of paper under the brush, and then, while pulling the spring of the dynamometer, simultaneously pull the paper strip and, when the paper starts moving, fix the value of the dynamometer reading.
The brushes in the brush holders should move freely, without jamming and excess clearance.
Worn to a height of 14 mm, oily or damaged brushes should be replaced with new brushes of the EG1Z or EG1Z-P type 22.3X23.5x6.3 mm in size.
No other type of brush can be used.
In case of replacement of brushes or grooves of the commutator, it is recommended to grind the brushes to the commutator. A strip of skin is placed on the collector with the abrasive side towards the brush.
By turning the armature by hand in the direction opposite to the rotation of the armature, the brushes are lapped over the entire working surface.
When turning the anchor in the opposite direction, lift the brush slightly with a hook.
After the inspection is over, I replace the defective parts and assemble the generator in the reverse order of disassembly. After assembly, check the generator.
Checking the generator
The health of the generator and the correctness of eth assembly are defined:
- - checking when the generator is running in electric motor mode;
- - by checking the RPM at which a voltage of 12.5 volts is reached when the generator is idling and at full load.
To check the generator, which is idling, it must be connected to the 12 V battery circuit and the current drawn is measured.
Connect the generator housing to the negative terminal of the battery, and the “I” and “Ш” terminals to its positive terminal (Fig. 5).
To check the G130-E generator, you must have additional terminal connectors.
It is very important not to confuse the wires when connecting, as if the polarity is not observed, the generator will remagnetize.
Installing a remagnetized generator on a car can lead to sintering of the contacts of the reverse current relay and to failure of the relay-regulator.
It is necessary to measure the consumed current after the generator has been running for five minutes.
A good generator should draw no more than 6 amps at 550 - 700 rpm.
At the same time, its armature should rotate clockwise (from the drive side) smoothly, without jerks.
Archor jerks when approaching the brushes of the same collector plates are usually a sign of a malfunction in the generator armature winding.
When the generator is powered by an electric motor, sparking under the generator brushes should be barely noticeable.
If the spark is strong and there are signs of burning on the collector, then this means that the generator windings are faulty.
Increased current consumption and at the same time reduced speed characterize incorrect assembly (skewed caps, touching the armature by the poles).
Increased current consumption and at the same time increased speed usually indicate a malfunction in the electrical part of the generator.
Reduced current consumption indicates poor contacts in the armature circuit (dirty commutator or brushes, weak brush pressure on the commutator, poor contacts at the joints).
The number of revolutions at which the generator develops a voltage of 12.5 V is checked on a test bench consisting of an electric motor that allows you to smoothly change the speed of the generator armature (up to 3000 rpm), instruments (voltmeter, ammeter and tachometer) and a rheostat, allowing you to create a load of up to 30 amperes in the generator circuit.
The generator connection diagram for testing on a simple stand is shown in fig. 6.
With no load, when the generator is cold, the voltmeter should show 12.5 volts, at 1450 rpm (no more) of the generator armature.
With a load of 28 A and a voltage of 12.5 V, the number of revolutions of the generator armature should be no more than 2400 rpm.
During the test, change the generator armature speed smoothly and at the same time monitor the readings of the voltmeter and ammeter, avoiding an excessive increase in voltage and current in the circuit so as not to damage the generator.