On GAZ-53A and GAZ-66 cars, the R1Z-V switch-distributor is used (Fig. 1), and on the GAZ-66-0Z R105 car.
The breaker-distributor roller is driven through a gear from the camshaft, which rotates clockwise (when viewed from the side of the cover).
The breaker - distributor has centrifugal and vacuum ignition timing controls.
Distributor Breaker Maintenance
The breaker-distributor must be periodically lubricated, check and adjust the gap between the breaker contacts, monitor the condition of the distributor parts and their cleanliness.
A loosely fixed breaker-distributor (maybe turned by hand) must be securely fastened with a fastening nut and tightened with an octane-corrector nut, having previously checked the correct installation of the ignition and, if necessary, set the ignition.
The cover of the breaker-distributor should be thoroughly wiped inside and out with a cloth soaked in clean gasoline.
Carefully check that there are no cracks or traces of spark breakdown in the cover and rotor and significant burning or corrosion of the electrodes of the cover and the current-carrying plate of the rotor.
Burning of the end surfaces of the current-carrying plate of the rotor and the electrodes of the cover indicates an excessively large radial gap between the current-carrying plate and the electrodes. In this case, the cover or rotor must be replaced.
If the cover or rotor does not show signs of damage, thoroughly clean (wipe) the burnt places on the electrodes of the cover and the rotor plate with a cloth lightly moistened with pure gasoline or refined carbon tetrachloride.
It is impossible to clean the indicated places with a file, as this leads to an increase in the gaps between the current-carrying plate of the rotor and the electrodes of the cover and to interruptions in the ignition.
High voltage wires must be firmly inserted into the sockets of the cover.
Burning and corrosion on the inner surface of the electrode (in the sockets of the cover) indicate that the wire does not reach the electrode or is poorly held in the socket by the spring contact tip.
In this case, strip the spring tip and insert it into the socket until it stops. If the wire is weakly held in the socket, spread the petals of the spring tip.
It should be noted that the occurrence of an additional spark gap in the high voltage circuit as a result of a loose fit of high voltage wires in the sockets of the cover can lead to burnout of the plastic of the cover, failure of the ignition coil, as well as disruption of the normal operation of the engine.
If necessary, blow out the inner surface of the breaker-distributor with compressed air.
Periodically check and retighten the fastening of the breaker-distributor vacuum regulator pipeline.
Check if there is any binding, the central contact must move freely in the socket of the cover.
When lubricating the breaker-distributor, be careful not to get oil on the breaker contacts, as the ingress of oil greatly increases the burning of the contacts and reduces their service life.
If oil or dirt gets on the breaker contacts, be sure to wipe the contacts with suede soaked in clean gasoline.
Clean the contacts only if their condition causes interruptions in the operation of the ignition system and no more often than after 12,000 km of the car.
When cleaning the contacts, remove the bump on one of them and slightly smooth the surface of the other, on which a recess (crater) is formed.
This indentation is not recommended to be displayed completely. Clean the contacts with an abrasive clean tool.
To ensure that the contact surfaces are strictly parallel, it is recommended to press the lever with your finger when stripping. You can not clean the contacts with an emery cloth, needle file and a coin.
During operation, it is allowed to clean (lighten) the contacts using a plate installed on the probe attached to the car.
After stripping the contacts, blow the breaker panel with air, wipe the contacts with chamois leather slightly moistened with clean gasoline, and set the normal gap between the contacts.
In case of significant burning or wear of the breaker contacts, replace the stand and the breaker lever.
Abnormal gap between the contacts of the breaker, the presence of burning or contamination of the surface of the contacts causes interruptions in the operation of the ignition system, and makes it difficult to start the engine, especially in cold weather.
The condition for long-term and reliable operation of the interrupter is the parallelism of the contacts and their good fit to each other over the entire surface.
It should be remembered that the tungsten breaker contacts have small thickness, and therefore frequent stripping of them inevitably leads to a reduction in the life of the contacts.
Check the spring tension of the breaker lever.
It is recommended to periodically remove the breaker-distributor and check the operation of the breaker-distributor, centrifugal and vacuum regulators at the SPZ-6 test bench.
If there is no stand, check the centrifugal governor for jamming.
The easiest way to do this is to check whether the rotor of the breaker-distributor returns freely to its original position if it is turned by hand relative to the stationary roller, and then released.
A breaker-distributor with faulty regulators must be repaired or replaced.
Regulator repair consists of replacing worn or defective parts with mandatory adjustment after that, ensuring that the characteristics of the regulators correspond to the values \u200b\u200bspecified above.
The centrifugal regulator is adjusted by changing the tension of the springs of 12 weights (see Fig. 1) by bending the racks on which it is fixed.
The vacuum regulator is regulated by changing the number of shims placed between the spring and the nut of the machine body.
Adjusting the gap between the breaker contacts and setting the ignition.
The reliability of the ignition system primarily depends on the gap between the contacts of the breaker and on the cleanliness of the contacts.
Centrifugal ignition timing controller
The ignition timing during operation of the centrifugal governor changes depending on the number of revolutions of the breaker-distributor roller.
A mismatch between the ignition timing and the speed of the breaker-distributor shaft is usually associated with jamming of the weights of the centrifugal regulator or with the weakening of their springs and causes detonation, a decrease in engine power, and an increase in fuel consumption.
1500 and above
along the distributor cam, deg.
0 - 2
3 – 5
8 – 10
12.5 - 15.5
Vacuum ignition timing controller. Characteristics of the operation of the vacuum ignition timing controller:
Vacuum, mmHg st
with respect to cam
0 - 2
4 - 7
7.0 - 10.0
Failure or malfunction of the vacuum regulator causes an increase in fuel consumption, especially when driving with a partial load.
To adjust the gap between the breaker contacts, you need:
release the spring holders and remove the cover of the breaker-distributor, and for the shielded breaker-distributor, first remove the screen;
- - by rotating the crank, the engine crankshaft, set the cam so that there is a maximum gap between the contacts;
- - check the gap between the contacts with a feeler gauge. The probe should enter the gap without depressing the lever. The gap should be within 0.30 - 0.40 mm.
If the gap is greater or less than the specified one, it is necessary to loosen the locking screw of the fixed contact post and, by turning the adjusting eccentric screw, set the normal gap;
- - tighten the locking screw and check the gap between the contacts again.
When checking the breaker-distributor on the stand, instead of measuring the gap, it is necessary to measure the angle of rotation of the breaker-distributor shaft, at which the contacts are in the closed state. It should be within 28 - 33˚;
- - install and secure the cover of the breaker-distributor.
The procedure for installing the ignition is as follows
Remove the cover of the breaker-distributor and the rotor, check the gap between the breaker contacts (adjust the gap if necessary). Put the rotor in place.
Unscrew the spark plug of the first cylinder.
Having closed the opening of the candle of the first cylinder with your finger, turn the crankshaft of the engine with the starting handle until air begins to escape from under the finger. This will happen at the beginning of the compression stroke in the first cylinder of the engine.
After making sure that the compression has begun, carefully turn the engine shaft until the pointer coincides with the mark on the crankshaft pulley on the GAZ-53A car (Fig. 2) and with the ball minted in the flywheel on the GAZ-66 and GAZ-66-03 cars (Fig. 3).
Make sure that the rotor is against the internal contact of the cover, connected to the wire, to the spark plug of the first cylinder.
Set the scale of the octane corrector to zero with the smooth adjustment nuts.
Loosen the nut securing the breaker-distributor column and turn the breaker-distributor housing slightly clockwise so that the breaker contacts close.
Connect one of the wires of the portable lamp to the low voltage terminal on the coil (to which the wire leading to the breaker is attached), and the second to the engine ground. You can also use the engine compartment lamp for this purpose.
Turn on the ignition and carefully turn the breaker housing counterclockwise until the bulb flashes.
It is necessary to stop the rotation of the breaker exactly at the moment the light bulb flashes. If this fails, repeat the operation.
While holding the breaker body from turning, tighten the nut of the breaker column, put the distributor cap and the central wire in place.
Check the correct connection of the wires from the spark plugs, starting with the first cylinder.
The wires must be connected in the order 1, 5, 4, 2, 6, 3, 7, 8, counting clockwise.
After each setting of the ignition, adjusting the gap of the breaker contacts, as well as changing the type of gasoline, you should clarify the setting of the ignition timing of the combustible mixture by listening to the engine while the car is moving.
It is necessary to adjust the ignition setting according to the octane corrector, without loosening the column mounting nuts. To do this, just turn the manual adjustment nuts (unscrewing one and wrapping the other).
Moving the arrow by one division of the octane corrector scale corresponds to changing the ignition setting by 2 °, counting along the crankshaft.
Turning the breaker housing counterclockwise will set the ignition earlier, clockwise will later.
Check the operation of the engine when fine-tuning the ignition installation as follows. Warm up the engine to a temperature of 80 - 90 ° C.
Moving in direct gear on a flat road at a speed of 25-30 km / h, give the car acceleration by sharply pressing the throttle control pedal to failure.
If at the same time a slight and short-term detonation is observed, then the ignition timing is set correctly.
In case of strong detonation, turn the housing of the breaker-distributor one division of the octane-corrector scale clockwise.
In the absence of detonation, turn the housing of the breaker-distributor one notch counterclockwise.
You should always work with an ignition setting that gives only light detonation when the engine is under greater load.
If the ignition is too early, when a strong detonation is heard, the cylinder head gasket may be punctured and the valves and piston may burn out.
If the ignition is too late, fuel consumption increases dramatically and the engine overheats.
Distributor Breaker Repair
Disassemble the switch-distributor to be repaired in the following sequence.
Remove the cover and the rotor; for a shielded breaker-distributor, first remove the shield.
Mark the position of the vacuum regulator on the breaker body with a mark and remove it.
Remove the low voltage terminal.
Remove the breaker panel. At the shielded breaker, first remove the capacitor. From the bottom of the panel, unscrew the two screws of the holders and separate the movable panel from the fixed one.
Remove moving contact.
Remove the fixed contact post.
Remove the cam with plate.
Knock out the rivet in the shaft shank and remove the shaft with the centrifugal adjuster.
The breaker-distributor is assembled in the reverse order. Before assembly, lubricate the breaker-distributor.
Inspection and inspection of the cover and rotor. Wipe the lid and rotor thoroughly. Especially carefully wipe the sockets of the terminals of the high-voltage wires of the cover.
Wipe the terminals inside the cover and the rotor plate without using tools, since cleaning the terminals and plates with a tool can lead to an increase in the gap in the high-voltage circuit, which is unacceptable.
Check whether the central contact of the cover moves freely, check the value of the ohmic resistance of the central contact with an ohmmeter. Resistance should be in the range of 8000-13000 ohms.
The rotor must fit snugly on the cam. Check the presence of a flat spring in the rotor seat.
Inspection and testing of the breaker contacts. The surface of the contacts must be clean, gray in color.
If the contacts burn or transfer metal from one contact to another, clean them with a fine abrasive block.
After stripping the contacts, they should be washed. Replace badly worn contacts.
When installing the contacts on the panel, make sure that the contacts are parallel to each other and their diameters do not shift relative to each other.
Parallelism of the contacts is achieved by proper stripping and bending of the fixed contact post.
The correct position of the contacts relative to each other is adjusted using washers mounted on the axis of the lever.
When installing the lever, pay attention to the fit of the lever on the axle.
If the axle is worn or the hole is worn out, replace the parts. After installing the lever, check the pressing force of the contacts, which should be within 500-600 G (Fig. 4).
To adjust the pressure force, use the oval slot in the spring, and if this is not enough, remove the lever and bend the spring in one direction or another to achieve the necessary force.
The gap between the contacts is adjusted on the assembled breaker-distributor. If the normal clearance cannot be adjusted, then this indicates a strong wear of the lever pad. Such a lever must be replaced.
Inspect and check the breaker and capacitor panel. Inspect and check the condition of the conductors connecting the moving contact to the terminal and the movable plate to the fixed one.
Check for play between panels. If there is play, separate the panels, rinse the bearing and fill with fresh grease L3158.
By turning the outer ring of the bearing a small angle, select the position in which the play will be the smallest, and assemble the panel. If the play is large and cannot be eliminated, replace the entire panel.
Remove the filter, wash it in gasoline, dry it, soak it in engine oil, wring it out and put it back.
Cut off the coked part of the felt or replace the felt.
When assembling the breaker-distributor, make sure that the felt touches the cam and lubricates its edges.
The capacitor is checked on the stand by checking its capacitance and the health of the insulation.
Inspection of the cam. When inspecting the cam, pay special attention to the wear of the cam faces and the presence of ring marks on them.
If there is wear on the edge of the cam, it should be replaced. If the cam has play when it is installed on the roller, then replace the cam or roller.
Inspection and check of the body of the breaker-distributor from the center Check for wear on the roller stud. Replace the roller if worn.
Check for sticky trucks on the axles. If there is a radial play of the roller up to 0.2-0.3 mm, replace the copper-graphite liners. To do this, cut off the head of the rivet of the roller and knock it out.
The roller with the centrifugal regulator is removed from the housing. The roller, which has wear at the location of the liners, must be replaced.
Press out worn liners and press in new ones, and after pressing in, ream to a diameter of 12.7+0.012mm.
Checking the vacuum regulator. The correct operation of the vacuum regulator is checked on the assembled breaker-distributor, on a test bench.
When completely dismantling the breaker-distributor, check the vacuum regulator for leaks. If the diaphragm is damaged, the regulator must be replaced.
After inspecting and replacing parts, the breaker-distributor is assembled, lubricated and a control check is made with the adjustment of all parameters.
Distributor breaker malfunctions and how to fix them
Interruptions in the ignition system or no spark
Contact burning - Clean contacts and adjust gap between contacts
Spring release - Measure spring force and adjust tension
Breakage of the conductor connecting the terminal to the moving contact - Check with a test lamp and repair the damage
Breakage in the conductor between the movable breaker plate and the fixed one - Check with a test lamp and repair the damage
Puncture or contamination of the rotor and lid - Thoroughly wipe the rotor and lid
The rotor and the cover, which have breakdowns, cracks and burnouts, must be replaced
Large radial play of the breaker-distributor roller - If the radial play of the breaker-distributor roller is more than 0.2-0.3 mm, then the liners must be replaced
Capacitor failure - Check capacitor failure
Severe engine knock when pressing the throttle pedal quickly
Ignition too early for this type of fuel - Reduce the advance angle using an octane corrector
Increased fuel consumption and reduced engine power
Jamming centrifugal ignition timing weights - Check on the stand and repair the damage
Increased fuel consumption when driving without load
Faulty vacuum ignition timing regulator - Check the tube connecting the regulator to the carburetor.
Remove the breaker-distributor and check if there is gasoline in the regulator cavity, check the regulator for leaks