The winch arrangement is shown in fig. 1.
To increase the efficiency of the winch, a globoidal gear is used
The gear of the winch gearbox consists of a cast-iron hub and a bronze crown welded onto it.
To prevent overloading of the winch parts, its worm is connected to the winch drive cardan shaft with a safety pin.
The winch is equipped with an automatic brake mounted on the worm.
The winch control fork is equipped with a retarder brake that slows down the drum during manual unwinding of the cable.
The length of the rope is 50 m. The maximum force applied on the rope is 3500 kg.
Care of the winch consists in periodic lubrication of the cable guide rollers, the spline of the winch drum shaft and the drum clutch, winch drive universal joints, drum bushings, cleaning the winch and its drive from dirt.
Periodically check the oil level in the gearbox crankcase and add it if necessary, and also check if there is oil (or water) in the automatic brake crankcase, if any, drain it through the drain hole at the bottom of the crankcase, closed with a cotter pin.
Wipe and lubricate the cable as needed with liquid oil.
Monitor the tightness of the worm and worm gear bearings.
If there is slight play in the bearings or loosening of the worm gear, adjust them as follows.
If necessary, adjust the automatic brake of the winch by tightening the brake band with nuts mounted on its long tip (above the spring).
The brake is adjusted so that when the winch is operating with the drum clutch turned off for 1-3 minutes, the brake crankcase does not heat up above the temperature that the hand can withstand.
The retarder of the winch drum is adjusted by changing the degree of tension of the spring using nuts mounted on the bolt of the brake shoe.
The retarder is adjusted so that when the cable is reeled in manually (the cam clutch is off), the drum cannot rotate at a speed greater than the cable reel speed, i.e. so that the cable on the drum does not weaken.
The stop of the fork for turning on the drum, located on the upper shelf of the buffer, is fixed so that when the fork is in the on position, there is a gap of about 1 mm between its stopper and the stop.
Winch malfunctions and solutions
- Causes of malfunction
Safety pin cuts off at light cable loads:
- a lot of friction in the globoidal gear and excessive wear of the worm gear due to long work without interruptions
Replace worn gear
- The oil in the gearbox heats up to a high temperature and loses its properties
Drain oil and add new oil
The winch drum does not rotate when the winch drive cardan shaft rotates:
- Drum not included
put the plug in the on position
Safety pin cut off
Immediately depress the clutch pedal and disengage the power take-off.
Replace the cut finger with a new one.
When replacing worn parts of the winch, it is required that the required clearance is provided in the fit of the cardan yoke on the worm shaft.
This gap should be between 0.12-0.18 mm.
When using the winch, the cable winds unevenly (one-sided) on the drum:
- Deviation of the cable from the direction perpendicular to the axis of the drum
Use winch block
- One of the lateral guide rollers of the winch cable does not rotate
Lubricate or replace roller
Auto brake not working:
- Incorrect brake adjustment
Adjust winch brake
- Strong wear of the brake band
Replace the brake band
- Lubrication of the brake band due to lubricant leakage through the brake crankcase seal
Replace oil seal
Sealed winch drum sintered bushings:
- There is no required clearance in the connection of the shaft with the bushings
Set clearances within: 0.025-0.085 mm for crankcase bushings and crankcase cover and 0.1-0.175 mm for crosshead bushing
Scoring of the shaft surfaces on which the drum bushings work:
- Hit on the rubbing surfaces of foreign particles
Delete postoron particles
- The required clearance in the fit of the bushings on the shaft is not provided
Set gap between 0.75 - 0.165 mm
- Long-term operation of the winch with the drum off
Do not allow the winch to operate when the drum is off
The winch must be disassembled in the following order.
- 1. Unwind cable 2 (see Fig. 1) of the winch and remove the cable stepladder and traverse.
- 2. Remove the squares.
- 3. Remove the drum 1 of the winch and unscrew the grease fitting from it. Remove the winch fork axle; remove the retarder shoe, fork, shoe bolt, its washer and spring.
- 4. Remove the shaft stop ring and dog clutch 3.
- 5. Remove the brake housing cover 10, remove the brake band and spring.
- 6. Remove the retaining ring and the automatic brake drum 9.
- 7.Remove the brake housing and shims.
- 8. Remove the worm bearing cover, gearbox housing cover and gaskets.
- 9. Press the outer races of the worm bearings out of the crankcase. When disassembling the winch, do not dismantle the bearings.
- 10. By moving the winch drum shaft, and turning the worm 11, remove the last one from the crankcase assembly with the inner bearing rings.
- 11. Remove the winch drum shaft complete with worm gear, spacers and adjusting ring.
- 12. Remove the adjusting ring, large and small spacers from the drum shaft, press the worm gear off the shaft and knock out the keys.
- 13. Press the inner races of the bearings off the worm.
- 14. Press out the oil seal and remove the cotter pin from the drain hole of the brake housing.
- 15. Press out the sealing ring of the brake housing cover.
- 16. Press out the plug and remove the gear housing cover gasket.
- 17. Loosen the winch cable coupling nuts, separate the coupling halves and release the cable.
Determining the technical condition. The general requirements for the technical condition of winch parts are similar to the requirements for the condition of gearbox parts.
It should be borne in mind that the final processing of the replaced crankcase bushings, crankcase covers and traverses should be done only after they have been pressed in.
Worm. In case of wrapping bronze on the thread of the worm, remove the layer of bronze with a thin sandpaper.
It is impossible to dismantle a worm with a worm wheel.
Auto brake band assembly with friction linings.
It is allowed to wear friction linings up to a size from their working surfaces to rivet heads equal to at least 1 mm.
Drum brake shoe assembly. The wear of the friction lining is allowed up to a size from its working surface to the rivet head, equal to at least 0.5 mm. In case of oiling, wipe the friction lining with gasoline.
Assembly. The winch is assembled in the reverse order of disassembly, taking into account the following instructions.
Before starting the assembly, measure the actual deviations (with their signs) of the following dimensions of the winch parts (Fig. 2):
- - size 100 mm from the axis of the gearbox housing hole for installing the gear to the end of the brake housing mounting;
- - size 38 mm from the axis of the gearbox housing holes for installing the worm to the inner support end of the housing;
- -height of the support collar of the brake housing 6.2 mm;
- - worm bearing height 32 mm;
- - size 62.5 mm from the axis of the globoid to the support end of the bearing of the long end of the worm;
- - the thickness of the large spacer washer is 3 mm.
Calculate the thickness of the worm gear adjusting ring. To do this, add the actual dimensional deviations to the size of 2 mm (nominal thickness):
Grind the adjusting ring to the calculated size.
An example of a count. The actual deviations were:
- ‑ Size 38 mm - +0.10 (grind the ring to size A = 2 + 0.10 - 0.05 = 2.05 ± 0.01 mm)
- ‑ Size 3 mm — +0.05.
Determine the thickness of the worm shim pack in the axial direction. To do this, add the actual dimensional deviations to the size of 0.7 mm (nominal thickness):
- ‑ 100 mm (crankcase);
- ‑ 6.2 mm (brake housing);
- - 62.5 mm (worm) at their plus value and subtract actual dimensional deviations;
- ‑ 32 mm (bearing);
- ‑ 62.5 mm at their minus value.
Choose a package of gaskets according to the calculated size. Include one carton pad in the package.
Calculation example. Actual deviations were:
- - Size 100 mm. — 0.05
- - Size 62.5 mm. —0.04
- - Size 6.2 mm. +0.10
- - Size 32 mm. - 0.15
The total thickness of the gasket package in this case is (B = 0.70 + 0.05 + 0.10 -0.15-0.04 = 0.66 mm).
Measure the thickness of the shim pack under load.
Note. In a properly adjusted and rolled worm gear with a new globoid pair, the contact patch should be located in the middle of the tooth and satisfy the following dimensions:
- - by the width of the ring gear - 30%.
- -tooth height - 80%.
Carton spacers, felt seal and gland used in assembly must be new.
When pressing on the worm of the inner rings of the bearings, the inner ring of the previously measured bearing must be pressed onto the long end of the worm.
Continue assembling the winch in the following order
- - Install the worm gear on the shaft until it stops against the shoulder.
- - From the side of the long end of the shaft, first put a large spacer, and then an adjusting ring, ground to the previously calculated size.
- - Press the oil seal into the brake crankcase with the working edge outward to a depth of 2 mm from the small end of the part.
- - Install the long and then the short coupling nut on the cable. Wrap the end of the rope around the thimble.
Install the coupling halves so that their near end is no more than 16 mm away from the thimble.
Connect the halves, while the end of the cable should not go inside the coupling more than 10 mm from the end of the coupling farthest from the thimble.
Tighten the nuts (tightening torque 60 kgm). Lubricate the cable with engine oil.
- - Insert the assembled shaft into the hole of the gearbox housing sleeve from the side of the hole for the cover.
- - Insert the assembled worm into the crankcase with the short end from the side of the hole for the brake crankcase.
- - Turning the worm and moving the drum shaft, engage the worm with the worm gear.
- - Press the outer rings of the bearings into the gearbox housing so that the outer ring of the measured bearing is installed on the side of the brake housing.
- - Install the assembled gasket package on the end of the brake housing.
Insert the brake housing into the hole in the gearbox housing (put the brake housing oil seal on the worm with thin foil) so that the large hole for the brake band is horizontal.
- - Install the worm bearing cover in the crankcase hole, screw in the bolts and measure the gap between the ends of the cover and the crankcase with a feeler gauge, pick up a package of gaskets for the gap size. Remove the screws and shine the cover.
- - Install gaskets on the end of the lid, and use only one cardboard gasket in the package.
- - Put the lid on.
- - Check the tightness of the worm bearings. A properly adjusted worm should rotate with a light braking feel. Play in bearings is not allowed.
- - Insert the brake band into the brake housing so that the long end of the band is horizontal.
- - Install the gearbox housing cover with an inclined hole down, screw in the bolts and measure the gap between the ends of the cover and the crankcase with a feeler gauge, pick up a package of cardboard gaskets to the size of the gap. Loosen the screws and remove the cover.
- - Install gaskets on the end of the lid, put the lid on.
- - Check the tightness of the worm gear. A properly adjusted shaft should rotate freely and have an axial play of no more than 0.08 mm (Fig. 3).
- - Pick up the cam clutch along the splines of the drum shaft so that it moves freely from the force of the hand.
- - Place the traverse so that the axis of the traverse mounting holes is located below the axis of the bushing.
- - After installing the cable ladder, wind the cable so that its end coming out of the ladder is 35 mm.
- - Inject the bushings of the drum and the shaft traverse through the grease fittings of the drum and shaft, lubricate the splines of the coupling and shaft with oil used for the engine.
- - Adjust the auto brake as above.
Pour spindle oil into the gearbox crankcase to the level of the control plug hole and run the winch on the stand for 15-20 minutes at 700-800 rpm.
During the winch run-in, check the operation of the worm pair, the absence of oil through the stuffing box, bolted connections and connectors. After running in, drain the oil from the gearbox housing.
Specifications for the processing of pressed bushings. Mutual runout of the surfaces of the holes of the winch drum bushings - no more than 0.05 mm.
Mutual runout of the surfaces of the hole in the crankcase bushing and the hole for the gearbox cover is not more than 0.08 mm.
The runout of the centering shoulder of the gearbox cover flange about relative to the surface of the hole of the sleeve is not more than 0.08 mm.
Disassembly of winch cardan shafts must be done in the following order.
- 1. Remove the cardan from the splined end of the shaft.
- 2. Press the bearings of the cross 5 (Fig. 4) out of the holes of the sliding fork 4, having previously removed their retaining rings 2.
- 3. Together with cross 5, remove the yoke with a threaded hole at its end when disassembling the rear driveshaft and the yoke with through drilling for the safety pin when disassembling the front shaft.
- 4. Remove the retaining rings, press the bearings out of the fork holes and remove the cross.
- Flare and press out the clip, remove the sliding fork oil seal.
- 5. Press the cross bearings out of the holes of the welded propeller shaft yoke, having previously removed their retaining rings.
- 6. Remove cardan flange 1 together with cross.
- 7. Remove the retaining rings, press the bearings out of the flange holes and remove the cross.
- 8. Unscrew from the crosses into the grease fittings and safety valves.
Determination of the technical condition of winch cardan shaft parts. Clean the disassembled parts from old grease, dirt and metal particles.
Rinse and wipe the bearings. Inspect parts for troubleshooting.
To check the safety valve of the cross, screw the valve into a tee, into which a pressure gauge is screwed and a syringe with grease used for the gearbox is connected.
Full opening of the valve should correspond to a pressure of 1 - 3.5 kg/cm2. Replace defective valves.
Cross and cardan bearings. If the bearings oscillate on the stud or the studs are worn to a diameter less than 16.26 mm, then replace the cross with bearings.
If there is a gap between the ends of the bearings and the needle holders, press the needle holder until it stops.
Replace the bearing assembly with the stuffing box in case of deformation of individual needles or loss of at least one of them, as well as in case of wear of the stuffing box.
Forks and cardan shafts. Replace worn spline parts.
Gimbal yokes with increased wear and wear of bearing holes (diameter greater than 30.02 mm) must be replaced.
Replace the seals of the sliding forks of the cardan shafts with new ones.
Assembly of cardan shafts. When assembling, insert the oil seal of the sliding fork into the cage and press it onto the fork until it stops so that the grooves and protrusions of the oil seal and the slot coincide, and roll it up.
Place the crosses with the grease fitting outward.
Put grease 1-13 into the cavity of the sliding fork and place the fork on the splined end of the shaft so that it lies in the plane of the welded fork.
Disassembly of the intermediate support of the cardan shafts of the winch in the following order.
- Undo and unscrew nuts 5 (fig. 5) of flanges of 4 universal joints, remove washers and flanges.
- Press the shaft together with one of the bearings.
- Press the second bearing out of the intermediate support bracket.
- Press the bearing off the shaft.
Determination of the technical condition of the parts of the intermediate support. Check the presence of lubrication in the bearings.
To do this, on one side of the bearing, remove the spring split outer, inner and middle rubber rings.
In the absence of lubrication, fill the internal cavity of the bearing with one of the CIATIM-201 lubricants,
CIATIM-202 or OKB-122-7. Put rings in place. If there are large backlashes in the bearings, replace them.
Assembly of the intermediate support. The intermediate support is assembled in the reverse order of disassembly.
When assembling the intermediate support, tighten the nuts to a torque of 30-33 kGm and tighten them.
Disassemble the winch cable guide in the following sequence:
- 1. Remove the upper brackets 1 (Fig. 6) of the guide rollers.
- 2. Take out the axles, remove the vertical rollers 3.
- 3. Remove the bottom brackets 5 of the guide rollers complete with the horizontal roller 6.
- 4. Knock out one of the pins securing the axis of the horizontal roller, remove the bracket and the guide roller.
- 5. Knock out the second pin of the axle and remove the horizontal axle 8.
Definition technical condition of parts and assembly of the winch cable guide
Clean the parts of the cable guide from old grease, dirt and metal particles and inspect.
Check the condition of the roller bushings. In case of strong wear and tear, replace the bushings.
Finally process the bushing holes after pressing them into the rollers, providing a gap in the connection, the bushing - the axis within 0.14-0.42 mm.
Replace bent or badly worn roller axles. If there are cracks or large end wear, replace the roller brackets.
The winch cable guide is assembled in the reverse order of disassembly.