Operating experience of ZIL 5301

The driver's seat adjusts quickly. If the driver is under 80 kg or more, then the seat shock absorbers are quickly “covered”. If, God forbid, he is taller than average, then the back of the seat rests against the wall of the cabin and is wiped in a few days

In winter, it is cold in the cab, as the diesel engine does not heat up at low speeds, and through the cracks the heat instantly turns out to be outside.

If we talk about the level of noise and vibration in the cab, then they are below any criticism. The tractor engine, although adapted, is not the best find for a truck.

The washer reservoir, located in the cab at the passenger's feet, is constantly leaking. The brackets of its fastening often break, since it must be removed to fill it.

In addition, the washer pump does not provide proper maintenance: first, the fluid is supplied to the right brush, then to the middle one, and the pressure no longer reaches the driver's one (two washer fluid sprayers cut into the hood of the truck, thereby solving the problem).

There is no algorithm for the operation of brushes with a pause, although there is wiring, but the pause relay is not installed. (meaning standard, can be purchased separately)

The clutch master cylinder at the pedal assembly sometimes starts to leak. Then the driver's trousers and shoes get dirty with hydraulic fluid.

The larvae of door locks fail in a month or two. The reason is that a grower is not placed under the head of one of the bolts. After installing it, the problems are removed.

A stool is required to add coolant. And in order to get the dipstick, you need to climb on the bumper of the car.


To the tractor engine D-245 of the Minsk Motor Plant with a power of 109 hp. there are no special claims. Noisy and vibration-loaded, it is nevertheless reliable and easy to operate.

When buying a new car, you need to remember the main thing - after 1500 km of run, you need to stretch the cylinder head. Otherwise, there is a high probability of breakdown of the head gasket.

And the peculiarity of the repair of the "Bull" engine is that you either have to hang out the cab or cut a hole in the front wall of the driver's cab, even for dismantling - mounting the head of the block.

Remember -1500 km! Until 2001, engines were equipped with an oil centrifuge, which cannot be removed according to the instructions.

Then they began to install an oil filter with a replaceable element on the engines.

At a transport company that shared information with us, Russian-made oil is changed every 10,000 km. Oil consumption is negligible and is enough from replacement to replacement.

Previously, the fuel regulator spring (fuel pump rails) often failed.

One of its ends was frayed and it broke. To get and change, you need either snake hands or a special device.

Then the factory started producing upgraded springs and the problem disappeared. Initially, the price of several turns of wire was 300 rubles. Now - 70 rubles

In cold weather, the diesel engine starts with ether.

The peculiarity of the electrical equipment is that the voltage of the on-board network is 12 V, and 24 V is required for the starter to operate at startup. A second battery is provided for this.

But the charging current is still the same 12 V. Therefore, one of the batteries is discharged without recharging.

To prevent this from happening, you need to change the batteries in places at least once every 2 weeks. If the terminals are not in proper condition, then when the engine is started, they burn out. Watch the terminals.

Starters often fail due to interturn short circuit.

The power steering bracket requires constant attention.

Periodically, its fastening must be pulled. Otherwise, you will have to buy a new power steering assembly, which is not cheap.


The clutch discs supplied by the Tyumen plant, with proper operation, boldly nurse 80,000 km.

The five-speed gearbox is reliable, but the gear ratios are disgusting.

An empty car starts normally in second gear. To move on a loaded Bull, you need to turn on the first speed.

The gear ratio of the first gear is 6.45. This means that even at high engine speeds, the acceleration speed is not enough to shift into second gear.

The engine immediately “sits down” and the car barely accelerates, there is not enough power. This is found out on a car with a maximum load.

The weakest link in the Bull's transmission is the rear axle.

The differential can't handle the loads. It has already been replaced on 30% of cars.

Differential spiders fail.

If you miss the beginning of this process, then it breaks the bearing seats and breaks the gear teeth.

Bridge for ejection: you have to buy a rear axle housing. Previously, these crosses were three-piece, now they are solid.


Pendant «Bull" does not cause any particular complaints. Fairly soft city car.

Spring bushings are enough for 50 - 60 thousand km. Shock absorbers do not flow even in severe frosts. The springs haven't broken yet.

Taganka tires cause big complaints. After some time of operation, the detachment of the cord begins and “hernias” appear.

In addition, it cracks in a circle around the rim. Nizhnekamsk rubber is praised in operation.

Brake system

The bulls are equipped with a brake system with a hydraulic dual-circuit drive and a pneumatic booster.

The rear brake fluid reservoir is hidden under the frame, which is not very convenient for maintenance.

The front brake pads in urban operation are enough for 15 - 20 thousand km.

It can't be called a great resource. Factory brake discs are crooked, so after buying a car it is better to bore them.

The guide pin of the caliper must be smeared every 5000 km with a mixture of Litol and TAD.


Apart from the problems with the power steering, which we mentioned above, there are no others.

Tie rod ends on our roads are enough for 100,000 km, which can be considered a good result.

Electrical equipment

After some time of operation, the ignition lock starts to jam.

Drivers display the starter start button on the panel. The ground switch is located behind the battery box.

To protect it from dirt and moisture, cover it with a plastic bottle cut in half.

The connecting terminal block, located inside the frame, is not completely closed. As a result, a short circuit and failure of electrical equipment.

At the firm, the ends of the wires are soldered directly. We wrote about batteries above. The starting contactor sometimes fails.


In general, as a city car "Bull" suits both drivers and transport companies.

Excellent maneuverability, good visibility, a large cabin, low loading height, an economical diesel engine with an urban fuel consumption of 18 - 20 l / 100 km and ZIL's monopoly on vehicles of this class ensured the success of the Bull.

Not satisfied with the build quality and components, expensive maintenance. But there is no alternative to the car, except for new Chinese and used foreign cars. And here you already have to count.

First of all, it should be noted that, of course, not all units of the "Bull", according to the operators, work poorly. Minsk diesel proved to be quite satisfactory for such a machine.

One often hears a common statement that the engine of the "Bull" is "taken" from the tractor "Belarus".

The MTZ-D 245 engine is really based on a tractor diesel engine. But these engines differ in cylinder heads, fuel equipment.

According to the experienced owners of Bychkov, the engine itself is quite durable.

The driver who responded to our material told how a diesel engine that had traveled 150,000 km was once dismantled at his motor depot.

The piston group, crankshaft and liners were still absolutely “alive” and did not require replacement.

Diesel is not prone to overheating, on the contrary, it often works with a lower coolant temperature. And if, nevertheless, it happens to “boil” the antifreeze, then this will not cause deformation of the cast-iron head and block.

One of the experts reasonably noted that for the normal operation of a diesel engine, the correct setting of the fuel injection advance is very important.

Unfortunately, many operators are "corrupted" by the experience of servicing YaMZ diesel engines, which do not particularly respond to the accuracy of this adjustment.

But the D-245 diesel engine, like the engines of foreign cars, according to our consultants, is demanding on injection advance adjustment.

Take an operation such as replacing the head gasket or removing the head for repair.

The "Bychka" cab does not allow you to simply remove the head from the diesel engine. The push rods of the valves of the fourth cylinder and the rear bolts of the head cannot be removed with this arrangement of the cab and engine.

Often at repair shops, the cab is unscrewed from the frame and raised a few centimeters.

First, the bolts of the brackets for attaching the cab to the frame are unscrewed, and then the cab is hung out with jacks.

I have heard that there is actually nothing wrong with this seemingly complicated operation.

Here it is appropriate to recall that different models of cabin families differ in size and weight.

If the car has a basic "single" cab, this is not the worst. Turning a heavy double cab is, of course, more difficult.

But what to do with a bus or wagon? On such a machine, this way of accessing the engine becomes a big problem.

In the motor shield "Bull" you can drill holes exactly opposite the pusher rods and head bolts.

Another option is to cut out a small hatch. This will allow you to pull the rods and bolts into the cab.

To gases and from the engine compartment did not pull into the cab, you can pick up plugs for the holes, and make a tight-fitting cover for the hatch. The last option is more difficult, but if you try, it can be done.

The cylinder head of the MMZ-245 engine weighs about 45 kg. It is quite possible to remove it manually if you work together.

Nevertheless, many drivers start moving from a standstill in second gear, and the reason for the quick "death" of the clutch is called completely different. Diesel MMZ-245 is silenced not just by turning off the ignition.

The high pressure fuel pump (HFP) has a rail that shuts off the fuel supply.

It is shifted using a handle installed under the instrument panel. This device, according to the drivers, is not very reliable: the rail drive often jams.

You have to turn off the engine in a "violent" way - shift into gear and release the clutch.

The car jerks and stalls like a driving school student.

If such stops become a system, then clutch life is rapidly reduced.

Only cars equipped with a Euro 2 diesel engine do not have such a problem. Their engine, like a gasoline engine, is turned off by turning off the ignition.

The gearbox inherited from the ZIL-130, according to drivers, does not cause big problems.

Removing the box from the "Bull" is no more difficult than from other cars. Just remember that it weighs 92 kg, you can support and lower it to the ground, for example, with a rolling jack.

The cable drive of the pads is very capricious.

The parking brake fails because the cable stretches and slackens, and this happens quite often.

The brake loses its effectiveness if the adjusting screws of the pads are incorrectly “summed up”.

Disassembling the energy accumulator requires caution, as it has a powerful spring that “shoots” when the cover is removed.

The "Bull" has a combined brake system with pneumatic control and hydraulic actuator. During the existence of the car, it was subjected to great modernization.

In the middle of 2001, the outline scheme was changed.

Previously, the drive was divided along the starboard and port sides, and then a separation was introduced along the front and rear axles.

There is also an original "bus" modification of the brake system, equipped with ABS. She can meet not only on a bus, but also on a truck or a specialized car.

The performance of the front disc brake calipers has been the subject of numerous complaints.

According to repairmen, moisture and dirt get under poor-quality rubber piston covers. As a result, the pistons get stuck. When braking, they go out, but they don’t want to return to the cylinders.