Starting a cold engine using an electric torch device ZIL-5301
Electric flare device (EFD) is designed to facilitate starting a cold engine at ambient temperatures below minus 5°C
The use of EFC is effective at ambient temperatures down to minus 22°C; at lower temperatures, a pre-heater should be used.
The operating principle of the EFU is based on heating the air entering the engine cylinders with a spark plug torch.
The fuel supplied to the spark plug does not burn completely.
The unburned part of it in the form of vapors and heated gas enters the cylinders, contributing to the emergence of additional ignition sources in the combustion chamber.
The current consumed by the ECU does not have a negative effect on the subsequent starter discharge of the batteries.
At the same time, the current consumed by the starter is reduced by 4-6 times due to earlier flashes in the engine cylinders.
When the EPU button is turned on, the voltage from the batteries is supplied to the torch spark plug through the EPU turn-on relay and thermal relay.
Simultaneously with the heating of the spark plug, the thermal relay heats up and is activated, including the solenoid valve and the alarm in the alarm unit.
At the same time, the valve opens and fuel flows to the spark plug, and the lighting of the indicator indicates that the device is ready to start the engine.
In addition, when the ECU button is turned on, voltage is supplied to the relay, which breaks the circuit of the generator excitation winding, which is necessary to protect the spark plugs from the voltage generated by the generator when the engine reaches a stable mode accompanied by the operation of the ECU.
Keeping the flame at a low engine speed after start-up helps it quickly reach an independent operating mode and reduce the smoke generated by an unheated engine.
The resistance of the thermal relay spiral is selected so that a voltage of 19 V (nominal voltage of the spark plug) is provided at the spark plug terminals.
To start a cold engine using the ECU, the following is required:
- 1. Bleed the engine power system with a manual fuel pump.
- 2. Make sure there is fuel in the ECU tank.
- 3. Place the engine stop handle in the working position and the gear lever in neutral.
- 4. Turn on the battery.
- 5. Set the manual fuel feed lever to the middle position by first pressing the fuel pedal.
- 6. Turn on devices.
- 7. Press button 36 (see Fig. 2) of the ECU switch and hold it until the indicator lights up.
- Indicator 12 (see Fig. 2) should light up approximately 40-120 s after pressing the switch button.
- 8. After the warning light comes on, press the fuel pedal and clutch pedal
turn the starter switch key to the non-fixed position (that is, turn on the starter) without releasing the switch button.
As soon as the engine starts running, release the starter switch key and hold the ECU switch button until engine operation becomes stable, but no more than 1 minute.
If the engine does not start, you need to repeat these operations after 1 - 2 minutes.
Diesel fuel must be filled into the ECU tank in accordance with the season. It is strictly forbidden to pour gasoline into the tank.
Main malfunctions of the electric torch device that arise during vehicle operation
Signs of a flare device failure:
- - current indicator needle goes off scale;
- - the current indicator arrow does not deviate;
- - the current indicator arrow shows half the discharge current; lack of flame torch.
The most typical failures include:
- - short circuit of the spark plug to the body (“ground”);
- - short circuit or burnout of the thermal relay coil;
- - spark plug burnout or lack of contact in the circuit;
- - failure of the fuel system. As a result of the failure, the device does not operate in the engine intake manifold or does not operate during starter operation.
For To check the circuit for an open circuit, connect a test lamp between the spark plug terminal and the engine housing. If the circuit is working and the button is pressed, the lamp should light.
If the lamp does not light, check the entire power supply circuit of the candle, starting from the batteries.
Check the push-button switch by connecting its terminals to each other with a conductor. If the ECU works when its terminals are connected, but does not work without a conductor when the button is pressed, then the button is faulty.
The serviceability of the EPI power button is also checked with a test lamp by connecting it one by one to the button terminals.
To have an idea of how the EFU works, I had to draw a diagram
Many car enthusiasts ask for a glow plug connection diagram. Therefore, I present the diagram.
Of course, the car still has the alternator field winding blocking relay turned on.
But as many people guess, this relay is connected in parallel with the ECU turn-on relay.