Diesel smokes (black smoke)
The first thing you need to pay attention to is the condition of the dust filter, if it is clogged with black soot, disassemble it and throw out the inserts (the filters themselves)
Start a diesel engine without a dust filter.
Initially, diesel may smoke because fumes got into the muffler, and a lot of it also accumulated there.
Next, we pay attention to the turbine impeller. How it rotates.
If it is heavily clogged with soot, then it is necessary to halve the turbocharger housing and wash out all the soot.
Usually, in this case, the diesel engine does not have enough air, and it begins to suck oil from the turbine.
Therefore, many people mistakenly think that the turbine begins to drive oil.
Next, we begin to look for the reason why the fumes are coming from.
This is mainly caused by a broken gasket between the turbine and the exhaust manifold.
There we have three gaskets, two at the turbine inlet and one at the turbine outlet. Typically, these gaskets break due to loose bolts.
In this case, the bolts need to be replaced. You need to buy heat-resistant bolts for the turbine.
At the outlet of the turbine, where the round gasket is, you need to take the time to drill holes in the bolt heads.
And seal it in a circle with wire. Since engraving washers cannot be placed in this place.
The next cause of black smoke may be poor performance of engine injectors.
Then this reason is accompanied by uneven operation of the diesel engine.
The diesel engine begins to shake, especially at low speeds. To check which of the injectors is not working.
At low engine speeds, you need to loosen the supply tube to the injector one by one. And by the sound you can determine which injector is not working.
If the injector does not work or works poorly, then the diesel engine does not change speed.
And if the injector is working, then when the tube is loosened, the diesel engine reduces the speed and begins to shake.
We find a non-working injector and send it for repair. This reason is mainly due to poor diesel fuel.
The same reason may be incorrect installation of the fuel injection pump.
You need to check the setting of the injection pump angle.
If the installation has no effect. And diesel fuel is normal (you can even tell by the color of the diesel fuel).
If it is brown, then instead of diesel fuel it is filled with heating oil).
The fuel injection pump must be sent for repair along with the injectors. Since the injection pump adjustment is carried out together with the injectors