The front suspension consists of a stamped I-beam connected to the steering knuckles using pivots
The pivots have a flat in the center and are locked in the holes of the beam with wedge stoppers.
Vertical loads from the steering knuckles are transferred to the beam by ball thrust bearings closed from dirt by rubber-metal caps.
In the upper bosses of the steering knuckles, annular grooves are made, in which sealing rubber rings are installed, protecting the friction surfaces of the bushings and pivots from dirt.
The pivot holes in the bosses of the steering knuckles are closed with covers with gaskets.
To lubricate the pivot bushings, grease fittings are installed in the center of the covers.
The pivot bearings are lubricated at the same time as the lower bushings are lubricated.
Spiral grooves are made in the bushings of the steering knuckles for the passage of lubricant.
The steering knuckles consist of two parts - a flange and a trunnion pressed into it.
The front wheel hubs are mounted on trunnions on two tapered roller bearings. The tightening of the bearings is regulated by a nut.
The steering trapezoid is located behind the front axle beam.
The trapezoid arms are bolted to the steering knuckles. During assembly, their threads are covered with a sealant that prevents them from unscrewing during operation.
The rotation angles of the steered wheels are limited by bolts screwed into the flanges of the steering knuckles.
Longitudinal steering rod is one-piece forged, transverse, tubular, with threaded tips.
The tips have a different thread direction, which allows you to adjust the toe-in without removing the tie rod from the car.
The suspension is made on longitudinal leaf springs with two hydraulic shock absorbers.
The suspension can be used with small leaf or multi-leaf springs. The small-leaf spring consists of two sheets, tightened with a clamp and a center bolt.
A multi-leaf spring has four leaves.
The spring is attached to the frame brackets through the ears formed by the bent ends of the sheets, while the front eyelet forms two sheets, and the back one only the upper (root) sheet.
The rear eye is attached to the spar through an earring that compensates for the change in the distance between the ends of the spring during suspension operation.
All movable connections: front and rear spring mounts, clevis mount, upper and lower shock absorber mounts are made on rubber bushings.
The spring is attached to the bridge beam with stepladders through the overlay.
4x4 vehicles have five leaf springs.
To limit the upward travel of the suspension, a rubber buffer is installed above the spring.
Shock absorbers are telescopic, two-pipe, collapsible.
The lower end (reservoir) is attached to the bridge beam, and the upper end (rod) to the frame spar bracket.
Front suspension failures, causes and remedies
Rattle in the front suspension
Worn kingpin and bushings (plain bearings) - Replace kingpin and bushings
Large knuckle end play on kingpin - Install shim or replace thrust bearing
Front hub bearings not adjusted or failed - Adjust or replace bearings
Loose shock absorber - Tighten screw connections
Worn shock absorber upper and lower bushings - Replace bushings
Reducing the efficiency of the front shock absorber
Fluid leaking from front shock - Tighten shock reservoir nut or replace shock
Uneven tire tread wear
Increased wheel bearing play - Adjust bearing torque
Wheels out of balance - Balance wheels
Worn king pin and bushings - Replace king pin and bushings
Frequent "breakdowns" when driving on rough roads
Settlement or breakage of springs - Replace springs
Long-term operation of an overloaded vehicle - The same
Loss of elasticity or destruction of the compression buffer - Replace the buffer of the compression stroke
Singling of one spring or breakage of leaf springs - Replace spring or defective leaflets
Displacement of the track of the front wheels relative to the rear wheels in a straight line
Breakage of the main leaf of one of the springs - Replace the spring or the main leaf
The center pinch bolt of one of the springs is broken - Replace the center pinch bolt