The steering of the GAZ-53A car consists of a steering mechanism with a steering wheel shaft, a steering column and steering rods
In addition, there is a hydraulic booster in the steering of the GAZ-66 car.
The working pair of the steering mechanism is a globoidal worm and a three-ridged roller.
The steering mechanism of the GAZ-5ZA car is shown in fig. 1.
For the main parts (worm, roller, steering arm shaft, bearings, side cover), the steering gears of GAZ-53A and GAZ-66 cars are interchangeable.
Due to the fact that the cab of the GAZ-66 car is tilted forward, the steering shaft of this car is split and has two cardan joints (Fig. 2).
For normal operation of the steering, check the free play of the steering wheel daily before driving.
With proper adjustment of the steering mechanism and steering rods, the free play of the steering wheel in the position corresponding to the movement in a straight line on the GAZ-53A car should be absent, and on the GAZ-66 car it should not exceed 10˚ when the engine is running and 30 ° when the engine is not running engine, which corresponds to 25 and 80 mm when measured on the wheel rim.
If the free play of the steering wheel exceeds the above values by 40 mm, adjust the steering gear and tie rods.
The most common cause of increased free play in the steering wheel is the formation of gaps in the tie rod joints, so you should first check and, if necessary, adjust the tie rod joints.
When adjusting the steering mechanism, first check the correct adjustment of the worm bearings and, if necessary, adjust them.
The worm bearings are adjusted when an axial movement of the steering gear worm occurs.
This movement on a GAZ-53A car can be felt if you take the steering column with your hand so that your thumb touches the end of the steering wheel hub, with your other hand keep the steering wheel from rotating and swing the suspended wheels from side to side.
To determine the axial movement of the worm in the steering mechanism of the GAZ-66 car, it is necessary, with the cab tilted, to disconnect the yoke of the lower cardan of the steering shaft from the worm shaft and the longitudinal steering rod from the bipod.
If there is axial movement of the worm, then when the bipod swings, it will be easy to feel the movement of the worm shaft relative to the top cover of the steering mechanism by hand.
Adjust the worm bearings in the following order:
- - remove the steering gear from the car;
- - drain oil from the crankcase of the steering mechanism;
- - clamp the steering mechanism in a vise by the crankcase flange;
- - remove the lower crankcase cover;
- - carefully use a knife to separate and remove a thin paper lining;
- - put the bottom cover in place and check the axial movement of the worm. If there is axial movement, then remove the bottom cover, remove the thick gasket, and install the previously removed thin one in its place;
- - remove the bipod shaft;
- - check the tightness of the worm bearings. With proper tightening, the force applied to the worm shaft at the radius of the steering wheel circumference should be 0.3-0.5 kg;
- - after assembling the steering gear and adjusting the engagement of the worm with the roller, install it on the car.
Adjusting the engagement of the worm with the roller
The engagement of the worm with the roller is adjusted with correctly adjusted worm bearings.
To determine the need to adjust the engagement of the worm with the roller:
- - set the steering wheel to the position corresponding to the movement of the car in a straight line, disconnect the tie rod from the bipod, and use the indicator to determine the amount of movement of the end of the bipod when it swings.
If the movement of the end of the bipod exceeds 0.3 mm, then, without removing the steering gear from the vehicle, adjust the gap in the engagement of the worm with the roller in the following order:
- - unscrew the cap nut 8 (see Fig. 1) of the steering mechanism and remove the lock washer 7;
- - turn the adjusting screw 11 clockwise with a key until the backlash is eliminated;
- - check on the steering wheel rim the force required to turn the steering wheel around the middle position, and bring it by turning the adjusting screw to 1.6-2.2 kg,
- - put on a lock washer. If one of the holes in the lock washer does not align with the pin, then turn the adjusting screw until it aligns. In this case, the force of turning the steering wheel should not go beyond the above limits;
- - screw the cap nut and again check the play at the end of the bipod;
- - connect the tie rod to the bipod.
- - disconnect turn signal wires;
- - remove the protective cover of the turn switch wires and the switch itself;
- - remove the steering wheel with a puller (Fig. 3);
- - remove the spring, spacer ring and bearing of the upper part of the steering shaft;
- - remove the pad and the steering column fastening bar;
- - remove the bipod using a puller;
- - unscrew the screws securing the bulkhead seal at the steering column;
- - unscrew the nuts securing the steering gear housing to the frame longitudinal beam and remove the steering gear.
The steering gear from the GAZ-66 car must be removed in the following order:
- - remove the signal button by turning it clockwise;
- - remove the spring and plug;
- - remove the plate holding the signal button;
- - disconnect signal wire;
- - remove the lining of the steering column to the levers of the bracket of the clutch and brake pedals;
- - unscrew the nut, remove the bolt securing the lower yoke of the steering shaft cardan to the worm shaft and remove the cardan shaft assembly with the column and steering wheel from the worm shaft;
- - remove the bipod using a puller;
- - unscrew the nuts of the bolts securing the steering gear housing to the longitudinal beam of the frame and remove the steering gear.
The steering mechanism of the GAZ-53А car must be disassembled in the following order.
Drain the oil from the steering box.
Loosen the nut of the steering column collar clamp bolt, remove the colony tube, and remove the support washer, O-ring spring, ring washer and O-ring.
Clamp the steering mechanism in a vice on the crankcase flange and unscrew the bolts securing the crankcase side cover.
With light blows of a copper or aluminum drift on the end of the bipod shaft, remove the bipod shaft together with the roller and side cover.
Remove the upper crankcase cover with the upper bearing and gaskets.
Remove the lower cover, lower bearing with gaskets, shaft seal ring with spring and washer, remove the steering shaft.
The steering mechanism of the GAZ-66 car is disassembled in the same way. At the same time, pay attention to the fact that a wide ring of worm bearings is installed on the side of the top cover (on the steering gear of the GAZ-53A car, this ring is placed on the side of the bottom cover).
Steering malfunctions and solutions
Causes of failure (Remedy)
Increased steering wheel freeplay:
(on a GAZ-53 car - more than 40 mm, on a GAZ-66 car - more than 120 mm with the engine off and more than 65 mm with the engine running).
- Increased clearances in the tie rod joints
Adjust link pivots
- Large wear parts of the steering rod joints
Replace bushings, crackers or tie rod pins
- Increased gap in the engagement of the worm with the roller
Adjust the engagement of the worm with the roller
- The appearance of a gap in the worm bearings
Adjust worm bearings
Steering gear sticking required to turn or a lot of effort, steering wheel:
- Wear or destruction of the needle bearings of the bipod shaft roller
Repair or replace bipod shaft
- - Steering, squeaking or clicks in the steering gear
- - Excessive wear of the roller or worm, chipping and dents on their surfaces
Replace worm or roller
Swinging the steering wheel with the upper steering shaft of the GAZ-66 car:
- Wear of the rubber bushings of the levers of the steering column mounting bracket
Axial movement of the steering wheel of a GAZ-66 car:
- The appearance of a gap in the bearings of the upper steering shaft
Adjust upper steering shaft bearings
Determining the technical condition of steering gear parts
If a delamination of the hardened layer is found on the working surface of the worm, then replace it together with the worm shaft. The worm is beyond repair.
If cracks or dents are found on the surface of the roller, also replace it. To do this, drill out the head of the roller axle, knock out the axle and remove the roller.
Then, insert a new roller and a previously knocked-out axle into the groove of the bipod shaft and fix it from the side of the drilled head by electric welding.
During operation, the bronze bushing of the steering mechanism housing under the bipod shaft is subject to one-sided wear, which reduces the margin for adjusting the engagement of the worm with the roller.
With significant wear replace the sleeve with subsequent reaming of the hole to the nominal size.
It is recommended to check the condition of other parts of the steering mechanism after disassembly.
Nominal and limiting dimensions, to which the wear of the main parts is permissible, are given in Table. 2.
Nominal and permissible dimensions of the main parts of the steering mechanism
Assembly and installation of the steering mechanism
The steering gear is assembled and installed on the car in the reverse order of disassembly and removal from the car.
During the assembly process, the worm bearings, the engagement of the worm with the roller are adjusted.
When assembling the steering shaft with the steering column and steering wheel of the GAZ-66 car, the bearings of the upper part of the steering shaft are adjusted using shims 3‚ (see Fig. 2), which are installed between the end face of the upper cardan yoke and the lower bearing spacer.
After adjustment, the steering shaft must have no axial play and must rotate easily.