A five-speed gearbox is installed on cars. Weight (without refueling) - 32 kg
The presence of the 5th overdrive provides in real operating conditions saving 07-1.0 liters of fuel per 100 km of run compared to a four-speed gearbox, a maximum speed of 115 km / h, reduces engine speed at high vehicle speeds, increasing its durability.
The gearbox crankcase is made of aluminum alloy and consists of two parts - front 49 and rear 34 crankcases along the mounting sleeves pressed into the front crankcase, and are connected to each other by ten bolts.
The gear of the input shaft, as well as the gears of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th gears and reverse, mounted on the secondary shaft 19, are in constant engagement with the gears of the gear block 47, have oblique teeth and rotate on needle bearings with plastic cages.
The reverse intermediate gear rotates on bulk rollers with a diameter of 3 mm on an axle, the bearings of which are located in both crankcases.
All gears are equipped with inertial-type synchronizers, the gear rims of which are connected to the gears through small splines.
Synchronizers for 3rd, 4th, 5th and reverse gears have gear rims made integral with the cones.
The alignment of the revolutions of the switched gear to the revolutions of the secondary shaft, necessary for shockless gear shifting, is achieved using the braking torque that occurs due to friction forces on the outer surface of the cone of the gear rim and the inner conical surface of the outer (blocking) ring 8 of the synchronizer connected through the hubs 11 and 22 with output shaft 19.
Crankcases are centered to ensure the necessary alignment of the shaft supports and holes for the shifting mechanism rods
Synchronizer 1st - 2nd gears - two-cone, has an increased braking torque due to the additional friction surface formed by the outer conical surface of the inner ring 8 connected to the hub and the inner conical surface on the middle ring 9 of the synchronizer connected by three protrusions (protrusions enter the holes on the gear rim 10) with the included gear.
It should be noted that until 06/01/03 a single-cone synchronizer was installed in the gearbox, unified with synchronizers of 3rd, 4th, 5th gears and reverse.
The gears are engaged by connecting the inner teeth of the couplings 9 with the outer ring gears of the synchronizers.
The sides of the teeth of the couplings and the rims of the synchronizers are beveled inward at an angle of 4 ° and, when engaged, form a lock that prevents the gears from self-disengaging.
Protrusions on the teeth of the synchronizer rims limit the movement of the clutches when the gears are engaged.
Axial forces from the oblique teeth of the gears of the secondary shaft are perceived by the retaining rings 17 and 44, the thrust washer 32, the collar of the secondary shaft and two thrust half rings located in the groove on the secondary shaft, which are covered by the ring 14
The ball bearings of the primary and secondary shafts are mounted on the shafts using spring and circlips and are fixed in the crankcases using external circlips.
The gear set rotates on ball or tapered bearings mounted in blind sockets of the front and rear crankcases.
Preload is carried out by placing shims 50 into the front crankcase during assembly.
The rims of the gears of constant meshing of the 2nd, 3rd and 5th gears of the gear block are fitted with an interference fit on the intermediate shaft, on which long teeth are cut, which simultaneously serve as the rims of the gears of the 1st gear and the reverse gear of the gear block.
The head of the axle 36 of the reverse intermediate gear is installed in the bed of the rear gearbox housing and is fixed in it with a locking bolt.
The opposite end of the axle enters the bushing 41 and is fixed in it with a split elastic pin, the bushing is also attached to the bed in the front crankcase with a locking bolt.
Shift mechanism contains rods on which shift forks and heads 29 are mounted, in the grooves of which the lower end of the shift lever is located.
The rods are fixed in the on and off position by means of balls 11 (Fig. 3) and springs 15.
A locking device consisting of two locking plungers and a locking pintsa, protects the box from simultaneously engaging two gears.
In addition, between the head of the reverse gear and the wall of the rear crankcase there is a blocking sleeve 16 with a spring 15, which makes it impossible to accidentally move the shift lever from the 5th gear to the reverse position.
The gear lever is equipped with a damper device that eliminates its chatter at resonance at high engine speeds, and is located in a special case 18, attached to the rear crankcase from above.
With the help of springs and fuses, the lower head of the shift lever in the neutral position is always located in the head of the 3rd and 4th gear shift rod.
Oil drain plug 46 has a magnet that catches small metal particles contained in the oil - wear products of gearbox parts.
Five-speed gearboxes for Volga cars and GA3el cars are unified in most details.
The gearbox of GA3el cars is distinguished by the input shaft (the number of teeth is 25 instead of 26), the crown of the gear block drive (36 teeth instead of 35) and the speedometer drive gear, which is higher body of the shift lever and the lower part of the shift lever.