Kamaz car gear divider
The gear divider is mechanical, accelerating with a pneumatic gear shifting drive and consists of a crankcase 14, cast integrally with the clutch housing, primary 1 and intermediate 15 shafts, one pair of gears, a synchronizer 8 and a gear shift mechanism.
Input shaft 1 is mounted on two ball bearings.
The front bearing of the input shaft with a sealing collar is installed in the bore of the crankshaft, and the rear bearing 3 is in the seat of the partition of the divider housing.
After axial movement, the rear bearing is secured with a retaining ring.
The splined front part of the shaft passes into a cylindrical neck for the front ball bearing.
Clutch disc hubs are installed on the splines of the shaft.
In the middle part, the shaft has a cylindrical neck, on which the gear and bearing 3 are mounted.
The bearing is mounted on a sleeve, which is fixed on the shaft together with the oil injection ring 17 with a threaded nut.
The oil injection ring supplies oil through the inclined holes of the input shaft into its cavity, from where it enters the channels of the primary and secondary shafts of the gearbox.
The axial stroke of the input shaft is regulated by a set of metal gaskets installed between cover 2 and bearing 3.
At the rear end of the shaft, the involute splines are divided into three crowns by two grooves.
The teeth of the outer rims are thinner than the teeth of the middle rim, which, in combination with the gear rims of the synchronizer carriage, creates a “lock” that prevents the gears from self-switching off in the divider.
An inertial type finger synchronizer is movably mounted on the splines.
A helical drive gear with a cone designed for synchronizer operation rotates on two roller bearings.
The input shaft of the divider has an internal cylindrical cavity for installing the input shaft of the gearbox with the front roller bearing assembly.
Axial forces arising from the operation of the gearbox are perceived by the rear bearing 3 of the input shaft.
The required oil level in the divider crankcase is maintained by circulating it through two holes in the walls of the divider crankcase and the main gearbox.
The intermediate shaft 15 of the divider is mounted on two supports: a ball bearing placed in the socket of the partition of the divider housing, and a roller bearing installed in a special socket fixed in the bore of the rear end of the divider housing.
The intermediate shafts of the divider and the gearbox are coaxial due to the installation of a spacer sleeve 12, which simultaneously acts as a centering ring, and are interconnected by splines.
The divider intermediate shaft drive gear is helical, pressed onto the segment key on the shaft until it stops at its end.
A ball bearing is mounted on the front journal of the shaft. From axial movements on the shaft, it is fixed with a thrust washer screwed to the shaft with two bolts.
The outer ring of the bearing, placed in the seat of the crankcase baffle, is kept from axial movement by a retaining ring installed in its groove.
The bearing is closed by a cover, in the groove of which a sealing ring is installed, a sealing gasket is placed between the end face of the cover and the partition. Axial forces are taken up by a ball bearing.
To ensure smooth alignment of peripheral speeds and shock-free engagement of the higher and lower gears of the divider, an inertial type synchronizer with conical friction rings is installed on the input shaft.
The divider synchronizer does not differ in principle from the main box synchronizers, but it is structurally designed differently, their parts are not interchangeable, with the exception of springs and retainer balls.
The divider synchronizer (Fig. 1) consists of a carriage 4, two identical friction rings 1, six locking fingers 3 and six fingers 2 of the retainers.
The outer diameter of the synchronizer carriage 4 has a groove into which the shift fork crackers enter.
The inner hole of the carriage is slotted, consisting of three gear rims.
The outer gear rims have a smaller tooth thickness than the middle one, which, in combination with the gear rims of the divider input shaft, prevents the gears from self-switching off while the car is moving.
The carriage has six holes around the circumference for locking fingers and six holes for locking fingers
The holes for the blocking fingers are chamfered on both sides with an angle equal to the angle of the chamfers of the blocking fingers.
Two identical friction rings 1 are pressed onto the outer ends of the blocking fingers until they stop at their ends.
The fingers of 2 retainers are installed in the holes of the carriage between the friction rings.
Average part of her fingers have a groove into which, when shifting gears, ball 6 enters, pressed by spring 5, located in the blind hole of the carriage.
The operation of the synchronizer is similar to the operation of the synchronizer of the second and third gears of a five-speed gearbox.
The divider gearshift mechanism is designed to ensure that the required gear is engaged while the car is moving and consists of a fork with crackers and a fork shaft, at the end of which a lever is installed.
The fork shaft is installed in the holes of the divider housing.
In the middle part, a fork with breadcrumbs is installed on the roller using a segment key.
The fork is secured with two tie bolts.
To ensure installation and access to the switching mechanism, the divider housing has a hatch closed with a lid.
At the outer end of the roller, a lever is mounted on a segment key, connected to the piston of the power cylinder.
The lever is secured with a pinch bolt. Lever travel is limited by two adjustable stop bolts.
The inclusion of a lower gear is carried out by moving the divider synchronizer carriage along the splines of its input shaft back until it is completely connected to the ring gear of the gearbox input shaft coupling.
In this case, the torque from the input shaft of the divider is transmitted to the input shaft of the gearbox, and then in the same way as in a five-speed gearbox (Fig. 2).
The inclusion of the highest gear is carried out by moving the divider synchronizer carriage along the splines of its input shaft forward until it is completely connected to the gear ring of the divider input shaft gear.
The torque from the input shaft of the divider through the gear interlocked with it is transmitted to the drive gear of the intermediate shaft of the divider and then through the spline connection to the intermediate shaft of the gearbox.
In this case, when the gears are engaged in the main gearbox, the torque in all gears decreases by 0.815 times, and the speed of movement accordingly increases by about 1.22 times.