Check and adjust wheel bearings periodically
Check the presence of clearance in the bearings by shaking the suspended wheel.
Pay special attention to the correct adjustment of the wheel bearings of the new car.
Periodically check and tighten the fastenings of the flanges of the axle shafts and the leading flanges of the hubs.
Change the grease in the wheel hubs systematically according to the lubrication table.
To change the grease, remove the hub from the trunnion, remove the old grease and thoroughly wash the bearings and the inner cavity of the hub with kerosene.
The lubricant layer in the hub between the bearings should be 10–15 mm thick.
Do not put too much grease in the hub to avoid getting it into the wheel brake mechanism.
When flushing and relubricating, do not remove the seal to avoid damage to the seal and loss of seal.
Press out the seal only if the lubricant is heavily contaminated and the hub bearings are replaced.
Periodically inspect the wheels and check the tightness of the wheel nuts. Nut tightening torque 98–118 Nm (10–12 kgf m).
For even tightening, tighten the nuts one at a time. Lubricate the nuts every time you remove a wheel to prevent the nuts from seizing.
If a wheel is found to be defective, repair or replace it.
Use tires with "universal" or all-weather tread patterns.
When operating vehicles on dirt roads, use tires with an off-road tread pattern.
Periodically check the condition of the tires and the air pressure in them, and rotate the tires as necessary and balance the wheels with the tire assemblies.
Check the pressure on cold tires.
If necessary, bring it to normal.
Make sure that tire tread wear does not exceed the limit value (up to wear indicators, and in their absence, up to 1.6 mm of the residual tread depth).
Fig. 1. Wheel swap diagram
In case of uneven tread wear, rearrange the tires in the sequence shown in fig. 1.
When swapping bias tires, use the spare tire if it wears the same as the rest of the tires.
The rearrangement of radial tires should be on the side - the front and rear wheels on the same side are swapped.
The spare wheel is not included in the rearrangement scheme.
In case of intensive uneven wear of the front tires, check and, if necessary, adjust the toe-in of the wheels, which should be 1.5–3 mm.
If patchy tire wear or increased steering kickback occurs, check and if necessary statically or dynamically balance the wheels with tire assemblies.
Wheel balancing is also recommended to be performed prophylactically at the same time as changing tires in order to prevent increased wear of tires and steering parts.
Prophylactic wheel balancing is especially necessary for cars of the UAZ-31512 family.
Wheel balancing with complete tires
The wheel must be cleaned of dirt before balancing.
To facilitate installation of the balance weight spring, it is recommended to reduce the tire pressure to 50 kPa (0.5 kgf/cm 2).
The unbalance of the wheel and tire assembly must not exceed 1600 g cm (40 g at the rim flange on each side).
Dynamic wheel balancing is performed on a special machine.
If it is not possible to perform full dynamic balancing, static balancing can be carried out on a device that simulates the rotation of the wheel on the hub, on which it is necessary to ensure the greatest ease of rotation.
The wheels are balanced using special weights and springs mounted on the rim flange.
The fixture is balanced like this:
1. Make the wheel spin. After the wheel has stopped, make a mark with chalk on its upper (light) part.
2. Repeat the operation by rotating the wheel in the opposite direction and make a second mark on the top.
3. Divide the distance between the marks in half and put the third (middle) mark, which will determine the easy place of the wheel.
4. Install one or more weights near the third (middle) mark to fully balance the wheel.
If it is not possible to accurately select the mass of weights, then instead of the initially installed weights on both sides of the mark, put an even number of identical weights in pairs, the total mass of which slightly exceeds the required one, and then, pushing them apart at equal distances from the easy point of the wheel, achieve personal balance.
5. Divide the selected weights as evenly as possible by weight and set the wheels opposite each other on both sides.