Engine lubrication system (fig. 1) mixed under pressure and splashing
Main and connecting rod bearings, piston pins, camshaft bearings, bushings and rocker arms, pusher bushings, tappet rod tips, oil pump and drive bearings are lubricated under pressure;
Spray lubricates the mirror of cylinder liners, camshaft cams, gears of unit drives and rolling bearings.
Oil pump (fig. 2).
Gear type, mounted on the front main bearing cap and driven from the crankshaft gear through the intermediate gear; consists of two sections - main and radiator.
The main (pressure) section of the pump supplies oil to the main oil line through a coarse filter 14 connected in series (see Fig. 1).
A bypass valve 12 is installed in the coarse filter housing (Fig. 3), which, with a pressure difference before and after the filter equal to 1.8 - 2.3 kgf / cm2 (if the element is contaminated filter), opens and part of the crude oil, bypassing the filter, enters the oil line.
By the moment the bypass valve 12 begins to open, the signaling device contacts will close:
- at this moment, a signal lamp lights up in the office.
After the filter, the oil enters the central oil channel, and from there through the channels in the cylinder block to the crankshaft and camshaft bearings.
From the crankshaft bearings, through a system of channels in the crankshaft and connecting rods, oil is supplied to the bearings of the upper heads of the connecting rods.
From the camshaft, the oil is directed in a pulsating flow into the channel of the pusher axis and from there through the channels in the pushers, along the hollow rods and rocker drillings - to all the rubbing pairs of the valve drive.
From the central oil channel through the outer cabin, oil enters the turbocharger bearings through an additional fine filter (Fig. 4).
After the coarse filter, a centrifugal fine oil filter 1 is connected parallel to the main oil line (see Fig. 1), which passes up to 10% of the oil passing through the lubrication system.
Clarified oil is drained into the pan.
The discharge section of the oil pump is equipped with a pressure reducing valve 10 (see Fig. 1), which bypasses oil into the sump at a pressure at the pump outlet of more than 7 - 8 kgf / cm2.
A safety valve 8 is installed in the body of the radiator section of the pump, adjusted to a pressure of 0.8 - 1.2 kgf / cm2.
To stabilize the pressure, a differential valve 6 is included in the lubrication system, adjusted to the beginning of opening at 5.2 - 5.4 kgf / cm2.
Fine oil filter
Centrifugal type filter (centrifuge). Rotor 11 (Fig. 5) of the filter is driven by a reactive moment created by oil flowing out at a higher speed from nozzles 22.
When the rotor rotates, the mechanical particles in the oil are thrown to the inner cavity of the cap 10, forming a dense sediment, which is removed when the filter is disassembled.
The purified oil is drained into the engine crankcase.
Tubular, air-cooled, located in front of the water-cooled radiator. It is turned on at an air temperature of 15 ° C and above by opening a tap located on the left side of the cylinder block.
In severe operating conditions, the oil cooler should be turned on at lower air temperatures. In all other cases, it must be turned off.
Possible malfunctions of the lubrication system and how to eliminate them
- Cause of malfunction
Low oil pressure
- Insufficient amount of oil in the lubrication system
- Dilution of oil with fuel
Fix fuel leakage in the drain line under the cylinder head covers, in the threaded connections of the injectors and in the places where the fuel lines are connected to the injectors
- Increased oil temperature
Faulty oil cooling system
- Pollution of the filter element of the coarse filter
Rinse filter element
- Clogged oil pump intake
Rinse pump intake
- Seizure of the plunger of the pressure reducing or drain valves of the oil pump
Rinse without disassembling the valve
- Wear of oil pump parts
Disassemble the oil pump and replace the manufactured parts if necessary, replace
- Wear of main and connecting rod bearings
Reduced oil pressure in the turbocharger
The oil pressure in the turbocharger will decrease simultaneously with the drop in oil pressure in the main line with any of the above lubrication system malfunctions. In addition, there may be:
- Breakage of the oil supply pipe to the turbocharger
Replace or repair tube
- Malfunction of the oil pressure gauge in the turbocharger lubrication system
Replace pressure gauge
Change turbocharger oil filter element with filter flush
- Turbocharger bearing wear
Remove the turbocharger from the engine and send it to a workshop for repair
Water gets into the lubrication system
- Destruction of cylinder head gaskets
Replace defective gasket
- Nozzle cup nut not tightened enough
Tighten the nozzle cup nut
- Leakage of rubber rings of cylinder liners
Replace defective O-rings
- Crack in the cylinder head or block
send engine for repair