The preheater is designed to warm up a cold engine and automatically maintain the thermal state of the engine and cabin, regardless of the operation of the diesel engine
The heater is operated at an ambient temperature of minus 50° C to plus 65° C at a relative humidity of up to 80% at a temperature of 15°C.
- When using the heater, remember that improper operation of the heater or its malfunction can cause a fire.
- It is strictly forbidden to use the heater when the engine cooling system is not filled.
- It is forbidden to turn on the heater without fuel.
- It is forbidden to turn off the heater before the end of the purge cycle by breaking the circuit of the fan motor.
- Do not open the burner while the heater is running.
- The burner may only be opened after the power supply to the heater has been switched off and the purge cycle has ended, as evidenced by the stop of the pump and fan motors. When closing the burner, the nuts on the swing bolts must be securely tightened.
- If you frequently drive on polluted roads, you should regularly clean the combustion air intake and exhaust pipes. In summer, it is advisable to close the air intake system.
- The heater must be turned off when refueling the vehicle.
- When performing electric welding on a vehicle, the six-pin connector on the heater control box must be disconnected (to protect the electronic control box).
- The "minus" of the power supply of the heater must be directly connected to the negative terminal of the battery, but not through the "mass" switch.
- The heater must not be operated with malfunctions causing a fire hazard.
- A car equipped with a heater must have a fire extinguisher.
- It is forbidden to operate the heater in closed unventilated rooms.
- After finishing work, close the fuel cock.
- Model: 15.8106-01
- Heating capacity: 11.6 (10000) kW (kcal/h)
- Fuel: Diesel
- Fuel consumption, kg/h: 1.25
- Rated voltage, V: 24
- Operating voltage, V: 20-30
- Power consumption (without pump), W: 70
- Pump: electric circulation mod.35.3730
- Pump performance at back pressure of 0.015 MPa, l/h, not less: 1600
- Rated voltage, V: 24
- Power consumption, W, max: 46
The heater is installed on the front cross member of the frame and consists of a heat exchanger 19 (Fig. 1) and a tilting burner.
Welded heat exchanger with a "jacket", inside which the heated liquid - the heat carrier circulates. A combustion chamber with swirler 20 is inserted inside the heat exchanger.
On the outer pipe of the heat exchanger, nozzles 24, 25 for the inlet and outlet of the heated liquid, a nozzle 23 for the outlet of exhaust gases are welded.
A thermal fuse 29 and temperature sensors 30 and 31 are installed on the heat exchanger under the casing, which control the temperature of the liquid in the heater system and the car cabin.
Sensor 30 controls the temperature of the liquid from (48±5)°С to (70±3)°С, sensor 31 - from (40±3)°С to (30±5)°С (maintains thermal conditions in the cabin car).
Thermal fuse turns off the heater when the maximum allowable temperature of the liquid in the heat exchanger (103±5)°С is reached (in case of sensor 30 failure, lack of water in the system, etc.).
The burner consists of a fan 5, fuel pump 8, nozzle 11, solenoid valve 9, flame indicator 15 and two ignition electrodes 12.
The burner is used to create a torch and provide the necessary thermal conditions for the heated medium.
A fan with a plastic impeller and a 2 DC electric motor is designed to create an air flow.
The 8 gear fuel pump is designed to supply fuel to the nozzle under pressure.
Pump drive from electric motor 2 through gear 7. Nozzle 11 atomizes the supplied fuel.
To increase the reliability of the nozzle, a sintered bronze filter is installed in front of the atomizer.
Solenoid valve 9 controls the fuel supply from the fuel pump to the injector at the command of the control unit, depending on the operating modes of the preheaterreveller.
The flame indicator 15 is installed on the disk 16 in close proximity to the nozzle and the flame and gives commands to the high voltage source, turning it on and off.
Two ignition electrodes 12 are located in front of the nozzle and provide ignition of the heater due to the spark between them, which is formed when high voltage is applied from the power source 28.
The burner is attached to the heat exchanger with hinged bolts and provides access to its elements during installation and maintenance.
Scheme of connecting the heater to the cabin heating system and engine cooling with a plastic casing, on which a high voltage source 28 and a suction pipe 3 for air intake are fixed.
The installation of the ignition electrodes is carried out according to the template, as shown in fig. 2
The circulation pump is mounted on the front cross member and is designed to pump coolant through the heater.
The connection diagram of the heater to the engine cooling system and cab heating system (see Fig. 3) makes it possible to optimally use the heat energy of the heater by creating various coolant circulation circuits.
When the heater is operating, fuel is pumped under pressure to the injector by the pump. Excess fuel from the fuel pump flows back into the heater tank.
Scheme of heater fuel supply is shown in Figure 4
The electrical circuit of the heater control is shown in Figure 5 of the same name.
To control the temperature of the liquid in the system, a temperature sensor mounted on the heat exchanger is used.
An electronic timer is used to control the operation of the heater.
On the front panel of the timer are:
- - timer controls - buttons "RESET", "HEAT", "TIMER", "MINUTES", "HOURS", "INDICATION";
- - digital scoreboard;
- - indicators "HEATING" (green), "TIMER" (red);
- - "NOZZLE HEATING" indicator - a red dot in the lower right corner of the digital display.
- - the timer is pre-set to its initial state by pressing the "RESET" button;
- - on the digital display of the timer, using the "HOURS" and "MINUTES" buttons, a number is set equal to the time interval (up to 23 hours 59 minutes) after which the timer must turn on the heater.
The timer is started by pressing the "TIMER" button, that is, the moment this button is pressed is the beginning of the countdown of the set time interval;
- - after starting, after the time interval set on the display, the timer will turn on the nozzle heater for (90 + 30) seconds (to heat the nozzle), and then give a signal to turn on the heater, the duration of this signal is (64 + 10) minutes.
At this, the timer completes its cycle of work, stops counting the time, the value of the time interval and the value of the counted time are saved on the digital display.
The timer provides a mode for immediately turning on the heater (immediate issuance of a signal to turn on the heater), carried out by pressing the "HEAT" button - in this case, the timer gives a signal to turn on the heater, regardless of what mode it was in before.
The heater is switched off in this case by pressing the RESET button.
- - "HEATING" - lights up when the heater starts and goes out when the heater is turned off;
- - "HEATING THE NOZZLE" - lights up during the heating of the nozzle;
- - "TIMER" - starts blinking when the "TIMER" button is pressed (that is, at the moment the timer starts): the blinking of the indicator means that the timer is counting the time interval set on the display.
At the moment the timer issues a signal to turn on the heater, the indicator stops blinking - it stays on all the time.heater operating time. If one of the timer indicators fails, press the "RESET" button. Determine the reason for the failure.
Digital signage operation:
- - when the timer is first connected to the cars on-board network, the digital display turns on for a time (10+5) s and goes out;
- - the display turns on when you press the "INDICATION" button and automatically turns off (goes out) after (10+5) seconds after releasing this button;
- - the "INDICATION" button simultaneously also transfers the digital display to one of the operating modes: "COUNT" and "INTERVAL" (the corresponding marking is applied on the front panel).
The "COUNTER" mode - the "INDICATION" button is pressed, the display shows the time elapsed since the start of the timer.
The "INTERVAL" mode - the "INDICATION" button is released, the display shows the set time interval;
- - setting the time interval after which the timer must turn on the heater, on the digital display is performed in the following sequence: the "RESET" button is pressed, using the "HOURS" and "MINUTES" buttons (when they are pressed, the display turns on, when lowered - turns off) the time interval is set.
Pressing the RESET button resets the timer from any mode.
Open the heater supply fuel cock.
The heater is switched on using a timer (at a predetermined time or immediately).
After the nozzle warms up, if the temperature sensor contacts are closed (that is, if the liquid temperature is below the set limit), the circulation pump and fan motors turn on and the control lamp built into the switch lights up.
After about 20 seconds, the high voltage power supply and the fuel solenoid valve are automatically switched on.
A spark appears between the electrodes, the fuel ignites, after which, with steady combustion, the high-voltage source is turned off at the signal of the flame indicator.
Combustion will continue until the temperature of the liquid reaches the set value, after which the sensor contacts open and the fuel solenoid valve is de-energized, fuel supply and combustion stops.
For 150 seconds, both motors will continue to work, after this time the fan motor will turn off, then only the circulation pump motor will work, the control lamp continues to light.
When the liquid temperature drops below the specified limit, the sensor contacts will close and the heater will ignite, as shown above.
If at the moment the heater is turned on, the contacts of the temperature sensor are open (the liquid temperature is above the set limit), only the pump motor will turn on and the control lamp will light up.
The heater will ignite when the liquid temperature drops below the set limit (see above).
Operating mode (if ignition has not occurred or combustion has stopped):
If when the heater is turned on or when the contacts of the temperature sensors are closed during the process of regulating the temperature of the liquid, ignition does not occur (for example, due to lack of fuel, due to the open state of the thermal fuse contacts (on the heat exchanger), 10 s after switching on the high-voltage voltage source and the valve, they will automatically turn off, while the lamp will go out, and after 150 s the pump and fan motors will turn off (complete shutdown of the heater).
In the event of a flame failure, the high-voltage source is switched on for 10 s, and if ignition does not occur, the heater is switched off in the manner described above.
To turn on the heater again, turn it off by pressing the "RESET" button, and then turn it on again by pressing the "HEAT" button of the timer.
To turn off the heater, press the "RESET" button of the timer. At the same time, the control lamp will go out and the fuel valve will turn off (burning stops), and after 150 s the pump and fan motors will turn off (complete shutdown of the heater).
Close the heater supply fuel cock.
If the temperature of the liquid exceeds 103±5°C, which is possible in the event of a temperature sensor failure, the thermal fuse contacts will open. At the same time, the fuel valve is turned off and combustion stops.
It is necessary to determine and eliminate the cause of the defect, and only after that and the thermal fuse has cooled down to a temperature of approximately plus 30 ° C, close its contacts by pressing the button located on the thermal fuse case and turn on the heater again with the switch.
If the control If the lamp goes out, this indicates a malfunction of the heater.
When the heater is turned on, the following blocking of its activation is provided:
- - the supply voltage in the circuit is below 18 V: the control lamp will light up and the pump and fan motors will turn on, after 10 s the lamp will go out, and after 150 s the electric motors will turn off (ignition will not occur);
- - the pump motor circuit is open: the fan motor will turn on, the control lamp will not light up and after 150 s the fan motor will turn off (ignition will not occur);
- - the contacts of the thermal fuse are open (in the power supply circuit of the fuel valve winding): the electric motors turn on and the lamp lights up, after 20 seconds the high-voltage voltage source turns on, but due to lack of power, the valve will not turn on and ignition will not occur.
After 10 seconds of operation, the high-voltage source will turn off.
When using the heater, it should be borne in mind that if the heater is forced to turn off or if ignition fails, the control lamp will go out immediately and the combustion will turn off, however, the pump and fan motors will turn off only after 150 s, which ensures the cooling of the burner and swirler.
During this time, no attempt should be made to de-energize the heater (e.g., by disconnecting the heater wiring harness block, as this will cause the temperature inside the heater to rise, which may cause, among other things, burning of electrical wires inside the heater, failure of the flame indicator and warping of the swirler).
Working in the automatic cabin thermal maintenance mode
To operate in the automatic cabin thermal maintenance mode, you must turn on the mass switch, the ignition switch and the cabin heater motor switch to low speed.
When using the heater, the electric motors of the standard cab heater can be switched on and off in addition to autonomous control of the standard key switch.
To control the activation of the heater electric motors, a temperature sensor is used, the contacts of which close when the temperature of the liquid in the system is plus 40 ° C.
The specified sensor is installed on the heater heat exchanger, and its contacts are included in the thermostat circuit with a built-in relay.
The heater motors do not turn on immediately when the heater is turned on, but only after the temperature sensor contacts are closed (plus 40 ° C) and when the instrument and starter switch is on.
The thermostat will turn the heater motors on and off depending on the cabin temperature. The operation of the heater itself does not depend on the state of the contacts of this temperature sensor and the thermostat.
Possible malfunctions of the preheater 15.8106, and methods for their elimination
Heater wont start
- There is no voltage in the power supply circuit of the heater
Check fuses, wiring, polarity
- Faulty collector or brushes of the fan motor
Replace motor or brushes
- Open circuit of the electric motor of the circulation pump
Test the pump by connecting it directly to the battery
No ignition, control unit automatically turns off
- Lack of fuel
- Fuel frozen in pipelines (at low temperature)
Fill with the recommended fuel. Blow out the pipelines, clean the filter
- The fuel pump does not supply fuel
Check drive, replace pump
- Solenoid valve does not open
Check valve electrical connections, replace solenoid valve. Check the thermal fuse (press its button)
- Nozzle clogged
Clean the fuel filter, replace the injector nozzle
- No ignition voltage
Check electrical wires and plug connections.
Replace the control unit.
Replace the high voltage source
- Leakage of pipelines (the pump sucks in air)
Tighten fuel line connections
- Incorrectly installed ignition electrodes
Adjust the gaps between the electrodes and the nozzle
- Too much combustion air
Adjust the air supply with the air intake damper
Heater not provided ensures high-quality combustion
- Excess fuel, poor nozzle atomizer, clogged nozzle (fuel is supplied at an angle)
Clean the nozzle, replace the nozzle nozzle
Soot forms on the exhaust
- Lack of air for combustion; the heater smokes “densely”
Clean the air intake pipe. Adjust the position of the air intake damper, the gap between the impeller and the fan housing
- Poor air atomization
Adjust pump relief valve pressure
- Low fan motor speed (low voltage on the motor or worn brushes) and damage to the motor
Fix undervoltage, replace brushes, replace motor
- The exhaust pipe for exhaust gases is bent or displaced, clogged with soot, dirt
Fix or clean the outlet pipe. Clean the heat exchanger (flame tube and heat exchanger inner tube)
Blue smoke coming out
- Lack of fuel. Nozzle or filter clogged
Clean or replace the nozzle. Clean the filter
- Too much combustion air
Adjust the position of the air intake damper
Heater cut off by thermal fuse
- Lack of coolant in the cooling system
Fill the coolant circulation system and remove air pockets
- Faulty remote thermostat
- No or little coolant circulation
Check that the fluid connection is correct and that the circulation pump is working
The heat output of the heater is insufficient
- Soot in the combustion chamber and heat exchanger
Clean the combustion chamber and heat exchanger
- Scale has formed in the heat exchanger
The heater makes a lot of noise during operation
The fan impeller touches the housing.
Adjust the gap between the housing and the impeller and secure it.
- Faulty fuel pump