On a Gazelle car, steering can be installed both without power steering and with power steering

Steering without hydraulic booster

The vehicle is equipped with a steering system consisting of a steering column with a wheel, a steering mechanism and a steering drive.

The steering column allows you to change the position of the steering wheel in height and angle.

The upper end of the steering column shaft is connected to the steering wheel with conical splines, and the lower end is connected to the steering gear screw through universal joints.

The steering mechanism consists of an aluminum housing, a screw with a ball nut and a sector shaft.

Steering: - bipod fastening nut; 2 - roller bearing of the sector shaft; 3 - shaft sector; 4 - steering gear housing; 5 - tie rod end; 6 - clamp; 7 - lower propeller bearing; 8 - ball nut; 9 - oil filler plug; 10 - adjusting shims; 11 - upper crankcase cover; 12 - screw; 13 - lower universal joints; 14 - steering shaft seal; 15 - shaft; 16 - upper universal joint; 17 - steering column; 18 - steering column lock handle; 19 - upper propeller bearing; 20 - transverse steering rod; 21 - rotary lever; 22 - kingpin; 23 - front axle beam; 24 - longitudinal steering rod; 25 - bipod; 26 - hinge

The screw is installed in the crankcase on two angular contact ball bearings. The screw has a ball nut with a screw groove inside.

A set of balls is placed between the nut and the screw.

When the screw rotates, the balls roll along the screw groove and the ball nut moves along the screw.

At the same time, with its teeth, the nut rotates the sector shaft installed in the crankcase on two roller bearings.

The steering bipod is attached to the conical splines of the sector shaft.

The screw with a ball nut and a set of balls are matched to each other and, if necessary, can only be replaced as an assembly.

Adjustment of the engagement of the ball nut with the sector shaft is done by turning the eccentric races of the sector shaft bearings.

The steering mechanism is lubricated with transmission oil (0.5 l), poured into the crankcase through a plug with a conical thread.

The steering drive consists of a bipod, longitudinal and transverse steering rods, steering knuckle levers and steering rod joints.

The steering bipod is connected by a longitudinal rod to the steering knuckle lever of the left front wheel.

The tie rod links the levers of both wheels, synchronizing their rotation. Its length can be adjusted, which allows you to change the toe angle of the wheels.

The angle of longitudinal and transverse inclination of the steering axis and the camber of the front wheels are specified by the design of the front suspension and are not adjustable during operation.

All hinges connecting the elements of the steering drive are unified, non-separable and do not require maintenance during operation.

Power steering combined with a steering mechanism

In a steering mechanism with a built-in hydraulic booster, instead of a roller, a three-tooth sector is cut on the bipod shaft, and the role of a worm is played by a screw connected to a piston-rack, mounted on two thrust bearings, the preload of which is adjusted by a nut.

In the steering gear housing there is a hydraulic booster cylinder, in which a piston-rack moves along a screw.

The piston is integral with the ball nut and has teeth that engage with the teeth of the bipod shaft sector.

Hydraulic power steering system: 1 - reservoir bracket; 2 - tank; 3 - tank mounting clamp; 4 - hose clamps; 5 - outlet hose (low pressure); 6 - injection hose (high pressure); 7 - bolt fitting; 8 - adjusting nut; 9 - steering mechanism; 10 - cover; 11 - adjusting screw; 12-cardan joint; 13 - seal; 14 - lock nut; 15 - bipod; 16 - pump bracket; 17 - pump; 18 - pump drive belt; 19 - suction hose

The piston divides the cylinder into two cavities. When the steering wheel is stationary, the pressure in them is the same.

Depending on the direction of rotation of the steering wheel, the corresponding cylinder cavity is connected through a hydraulic distributor to the high-pressure injection line, and the other to the outlet line.

The fluid (oil) pressure in the power steering hydraulic system is created by a vane-type pump with a belt drive from the crankshaft pulley, mounted on the front of the engine.

In the expansion tank of the hydraulic system, the steering will be strengthened A filter element is installed that traps particles larger than 45 microns. The steering drive consists of steering linkage rods, bipod rods and levers.

Self-tensioning dismountable hinges with hemispherical pins are pressed into the eye of the pendulum lever and into the ends of the rods.

The steering linkage rods have adjusting tubes, and corrugated rubber seals with a metal clip are pressed onto the shoulders of their tips.

The joints of the bipod linkage and the pendulum arm are protected by rubber cap seals.

Possible malfunctions of steering without power steering

- Cause of malfunction

Elimination method

Increased steering wheel free play angle:

- Increased clearance in the engagement of the nut-sector pair

Adjust the engagement of the nut-sector pair

- The appearance of a gap in the screw bearings

Adjust the screw bearing

- Excessive wear of the rod hinges and their fastenings

Replace worn parts

- Increased play of wheel hubs

Adjust the clearance in the wheel hub bearings

- Loosening the fork mounting wedges and the bipod mounting nut

Tighten loose nuts

Sticking, squeaking or clicking in the steering mechanism:

- Excessive wear of the screw or sector shaft, chipping or dents on their surface

Replace the screw nut or sector shaft

Weak fixation of the steering column:

- Loosening the column fixation mechanism

Adjust the column fixation mechanism

Increased steering effort "heavy steering":

- Pivot bushings scuffed

Replace bushings and king pin

- Rotating the king pin bushings in the knuckle bosses

Replace bushings and kingpin

- Contamination of the king pin support bearing (when turning the wheels you can hear a creaking sound in the support bearing)

Wash the support bearing through a grease nipple with a mixture of 50% kerosene and 50% gear oil.

Lubricate the support bearing through a grease nipple until grease appears from under the seal

Lubricant leak from the steering mechanism:

- Wear or loss of elasticity of the oil seal and steering gear seals

Replace worn oil seal and rubber sealing rings

Steering column play:

- Axial movement of the steering wheel shaft relative to the casings

Replace worn steering column shaft bearing bushings

Diagnosis of power steering faults

- Cause of malfunction

Elimination method

Continuous noise from the pump:

- Bearings are worn

Replace bearings

The amplifier does not work or its efficiency is low (increased effort on the steering wheel):

- The filter in the tank is clogged

Replace the filter (on some engines the filter is replaced with the tank assembly) and, preferably, the fluid

- The flow and safety valves are clogged

Wash the valves and pump

- The belt slips along the pump pulley

Tighten or replace the belt

- Liquid of inappropriate viscosity is poured (as a rule, its viscosity is low)

Replace the fluid

The steering wheel turns in one direction much easier than in the other:

- Clogged hydraulic system

Flush the hydraulic system and amplifier

- Amplifier defect: destruction of its parts, valve leakage

Replace the amplifier assembly

Fluid leakage from the system:

- Seals are worn

Replace the seals

- Cracks in hoses, their clamps are not tightened tightly

Tighten the clamps, replace the rods

- Leaking from under the amplifier or pump covers

Replace gaskets, rubber rings

- Leak through technological holes in the pump housing (plugs squeezed out)

Press in new plugs or replace the pump

- Increased pressure in the system due to the flow valve jamming in the closed position

Fix the problem or replace the pump

- Excessive fluid level in the tank

Take off excess liquid with a syringe or rubber bulb

Low directional stability at high speed:

- Improper adjustment of the propeller bearings and the nut-rack-shaft-sector steering gear pair

Adjust the gaps between parts