On a Gazelle car, steering can be installed both without power steering and with power steering
The car is equipped with steering, consisting of a steering column with a wheel, a steering mechanism and a steering drive.
The steering column allows you to change the position of the steering wheel in height and angle.
The upper end of the steering column shaft is connected to the steering wheel with conical splines, and the lower end is connected to the steering gear screw through cardan joints.
The steering mechanism consists of an aluminum crankcase, a screw with a ball nut and a sector shaft.
The screw is mounted in the crankcase on two angular contact ball bearings. A ball nut is installed on the screw, which has a screw groove inside.
A set of balls is placed between the nut and the screw.
When the screw is turned, the balls roll along the helical groove and the ball nut moves along the screw. At the same time, with its teeth, the nut turns the shaft-sector installed in the crankcase on two roller bearings.
A steering arm is fixed on the conical splines of the sector shaft.
The ball screw and the set of balls are matched to each other and can only be replaced as a unit if necessary.
The engagement of the ball nut with the sector shaft is adjusted by turning the eccentric cages of the sector shaft bearings.
The steering mechanism is lubricated with gear oil (0.5 l) filled into the crankcase through a plug with a conical thread.
The steering gear consists of a bipod, a longitudinal and transverse steering rods, wheel steering knuckle levers and steering rod joints.
The steering arm is connected by a longitudinal link to the steering knuckle arm of the left front wheel.
A tie rod links the arms of both wheels, synchronizing their turn. Its length can be adjusted, which allows you to change the angle of convergence of the wheels.
The angle of the longitudinal and transverse inclination of the axis of rotation and the camber of the front wheels are set by the design of the front suspension and are not adjustable during operation. All hinges connecting the elements of the steering gear are unified, non-separable and do not require maintenance in operation.
Power steering combined with steering mechanism
In the steering mechanism with a built-in hydraulic booster, instead of a roller, a three-tooth sector is cut on the bipod shaft, and the role of the worm is performed by a screw connected to the piston-rack mounted on two thrust bearings, the preload of which is regulated by a nut.
In the crankcase of the steering mechanism, a hydraulic booster cylinder is made, in which a piston-rack moves along the screw.
The piston is made integral with the ball nut and has teeth that engage with the teeth of the bipod shaft sector.
The piston divides the cylinder into two cavities. When the steering wheel is stationary, the pressure in them is the same.
Depending on the direction of rotation of the steering wheel, the corresponding cavity of the cylinder is connected through a hydraulic distributor to the high-pressure supply line, and the other to the outlet line.
The pressure of the fluid (oil) in the hydraulic system of the power steering creates a vane-type pump with a belt drive from the crankshaft pulley, mounted on the front of the engine.
A filter element is placed in the expansion tank of the power steering hydraulic system, which traps particles larger than 45 microns. The steering drive consists of steering trapezoid rods, bipod rods and levers.
Self-tightening collapsible hinges with hemispherical fingers are pressed into the eye of the pendulum lever and into the ends of the rods.
The tie rods of the steering trapezoid have adjusting tubes, and corrugated rubber seals with a metal clip are pressed on the shoulders of their tips.
The hinges of the bipod rod and the pendulum lever are protected by cap rubber seals.
Possible malfunctions of steering without hydraulic booster
- Cause of malfunction
Increased steering wheel freeplay:
- Increased clearance in the engagement of the nut-sector pair
Adjust the engagement of the nut-sector pair
- The appearance of a gap in the propeller bearings
Adjust screw bearing
- Excessive wear of the part of the hinges of the rods and their fastening
Replace worn parts
- Increased backlasht wheel hubs
Adjust wheel bearing clearance
- Loosening the wedges of the forks and the nuts of the bipod
Tighten loose nuts
Steering, squeaking or clicking:
- Excessive wear of the screw or shaft-sector, chipping or dents on their surface
Replace screw nut or sector shaft
Weak steering column lock:
- Loosening the column locking mechanism
Adjust column locking mechanism
Increased steering force "heavy steering":
- Kingpin bushing scuff
Replace bushings and king pin
- Turning the king pin bushings in the knuckle bosses
Replace bushings and kingpin
- Pollution of the pivot bearing (when turning the wheels, a creak is heard in the thrust bearing)
Rinse the thrust bearing through a grease gun with a mixture of 50% kerosene and 50% gear oil.
Lubricate the support bearing through the grease fitting until grease comes out from under the seal
Leaking grease from the steering gear:
- Wear or loss of elasticity of the stuffing box and steering gear seals
Replace worn oil seal and O-rings
Steering column play:
- Axial movement of the steering wheel shaft relative to the casings
Replace worn steering column bearing bushings
Diagnosis of malfunctions of the power steering
- Cause of malfunction
Constant noise from the pump:
- Worn bearings
The booster does not work or its efficiency is low (increased effort on the steering wheel):
- The filter in the tank is clogged
Replace the filter (on parts of engines, the filter is replaced with the tank assembly) and, preferably, the fluid
- Flow and safety valves clogged
Flush valves and pump
- The belt slips over the pump pulley
Tighten or change belt
- Liquid of inappropriate viscosity is filled (as a rule, its viscosity is low)
The steering wheel turns much easier in one direction than in the other:
- Clogging of the hydraulic system
Flush the hydraulic system and booster
- Amplifier defect: destruction of its parts, valve leaks
Replace amplifier assembly
Liquid leak from the system:
- Worn oil seals
Replace oil seals
- Hose cracks, their clamps are loose
Tighten clamps, replace rods
- Leak from under the covers of the amplifier or pump
Replace gaskets, rubber rings
- Leakage through technological holes in the pump casing (squeezed out the plugs)
Press in new plugs or replace pump
- Increased pressure in the system due to the flow valve jamming in the closed position
Repair or replace pump
- Excessive liquid level in the reservoir
Take off excess liquid with a syringe or rubber bulb
Low directional stability at high speed:
- Violation of the adjustment of the bearings of the screw and in a pair of nut-rail - shaft-sector of the steering mechanism
Adjust gaps between parts