The normal operation of the engine and its long service life can only be ensured if all recommendations are followed.

  • 1. For the first 1000 km, follow the rules for breaking in the car.
  • 2. After starting a cold engine, do not allow it to run at a high crankshaft speed.
  • 3. When the engine is running at full load, its instant stop is unacceptable, the engine must run for 1-3 minutes at the minimum idle speed.
  • 4. To prevent air from entering the fuel system, do not burn all the fuel from the fuel tank.
  • 5. Make sure that the fuel pump of the heater is correctly adjusted, avoiding an open flame from the boiler flue.
  • 6. Do not allow the heater to operate for more than 15 seconds without coolant in the boiler. After washing the car, turn on the pump unit for 2-3 minutes to remove water from the air path of the heater.
  • 7. Start driving after the engine coolant has warmed up to a temperature of at least 40 °C. The optimum temperature of the coolant is 75-100 ° C.
  • 8. To completely drain the liquid from the engine cooling system, drive the car horizontally or tilted forward.
  • 9. Drain the coolant from the engine cooling system through three taps (on the heater boiler, on the pumping unit and on the inlet pipe of the water pump) with the cab heater tap open and with the radiator and heater fill pipe plugs open.

When using water in the cooling system, to remove its residues from the liquid heater pump, turn on the pump unit for 10-15 seconds. After draining the liquid, close the taps.

  • 10. When turning on the starter again (restarting after a 1-2 minute break), if the engine does not start or stalls for some reason, first turn the key to its original vertical position.

Frequent engine starts with short-term operation lead to a rapid discharge of batteries.

  • 11. Do not move the car using the starter, because. this can cause the starter to fail and the batteries to drain quickly.
  • 12. To prevent damage to the alternator, connect the wire from the starter to the positive battery terminal, and the wire from the battery switch to the negative terminal.
  • 13. Connect the wires to the generator and voltage regulator in accordance with the markings indicated on these products.
  • 14. Disconnect the batteries before removing the generator from the engine.
  • 15. When the car is parked for a long time, disconnect the batteries from the "mass" using the "mass" switch button.
  • 16. When starting the engine from an external power source, the batteries must be switched on through the external start socket.

It is forbidden to use a DC source with characteristics exceeding 24 V at a current of 0 (zero) A and 18.3 V at a current of 1000 A or batteries having a rated capacity that differs from 190 Ah by more than 20 A. h.

Cause of malfunction (Remedy)

Engine won't start:

Before looking for the causes of difficult starting of the engine, check if there is fuel in the tank and if the valve of the suction fuel line is open

- The starter does not turn the crankshaft or rotates it very slowly

Check the state of charge and serviceability of the batteries and, if necessary, charge or replace them

Check the contacts in the starter power circuit, if necessary, clean and tighten the wire terminals.

Check the condition of the starter relay contacts, if there is a burn, clean the contacts

Check the contacts of the starter brushes with the commutator and the absence of sticking of the brushes in the brush holders, if necessary, wipe and clean the commutator, clean the side edges of the brushes, replace worn brushes with new ones or replace faulty brush springs.

If the defects cannot be repaired, replace the starter.

- Clogged fuel lines or intake in the fuel tank

Rinse intake, flush and blow out fuel lines

- Freezing of water in the fuel lines or on the grid of the fuel tank intake

Carefully warm up the fuel pipes, filters and tank

- Fuel thickening in fuel lines

Replace the fuel with another one that matches the season and bleed the system

- Clogged fuel filter elements

Replace filter elements

- Wrong fuel injection advance angle

Adjust fuel injection advance angle

- The presence of air in the fuel system

Bleed the system, fix leaks

- The fuel priming pump does not work

Disassemble the pump and troubleshoot

- Jam low flow high pressure fuel pump sockets

Repair the fuel pump in a workshop or replace it with a good one

- Difficulty moving the injection pump rail due to thickening of the lubricant

Carefully warm up the fuel pump

The engine does not develop power:

- Dirty air filters

Clean air filters

- Clogged exhaust tract

Clean the exhaust path

- Contamination of fuel filter elements

Replace filter elements

- The regulator control lever does not reach the maximum speed bolt. The stop lever does not reach the end working position

Check and adjust drive lever system

- The presence of air in the fuel system

Bleed the fuel supply system and fix it

- Wrong fuel injection advance angle

Adjust fuel injection advance angle

- Loose fit of gas distribution valves

Adjust thermal gaps in the valve mechanism, if necessary, grind the valves

- Low air pressure

Air supply leaks

Fix leaks.

If there is increased resistance in the exhaust pipe, clean the exhaust pipe.

Faulty turbocharger.


- Violation of adjustment or clogging of nozzles

Adjust the nozzles and, if necessary, rinse and clean them

- Faulty fuel priming pump valves

Rinse the seats and valves of the pump, grind the valves if necessary

- Breakage of the springs of the pushers of the high pressure fuel pump

Change the springs and adjust the pump on the stand in a special workshop

- Broken springs or leaks in the injection valves of the fuel pump

Replace the spring or repair the leak in the valve (have it done in a specialist workshop)

- Piston ring wear

Replace piston rings, if necessary, pistons and cylinder liners

Engine knocking:

- Early fuel injection into cylinders

Adjust fuel injection advance angle

- Clearances in the valve mechanism are misaligned

Adjust valve clearances

Irregular engine operation:

- The fastening is loose or the high-pressure pipe has burst

Tighten fitting or replace tube

- The uniformity of the fuel supply by the sections of the high pressure pump is broken

Adjust the feed on a special stand

- Unsatisfactory operation of individual nozzles

Remove the injectors and check in the workshop, if necessary, repair or replace defective injectors

- Faulty speed controller

Removed in a special workshop

Reduced oil pressure in the lubrication system

Before looking for the cause of the malfunction, make sure there is enough oil in the sump

- Contamination of the oil filter element (light bulb on)

Change oil filter elements

- Faulty pressure gauge

Replace the pressure gauge with a good one

- Clogged oil pump intake

Remove the pan, rinse the intake

- Clogging or malfunction of the pressure reducing or differential valves of the oil pump

Disassemble, wash and reassemble the valve. If the spring breaks, replace it and adjust the valve on the stand

- Leakage of oil pipeline connections

Check the connections and gaskets of filters and tubes. If necessary, tighten connections or replace gaskets

- Oil dilution due to fuel ingress

Check the tightness of the connections of the drain pipeline, high pressure pipes of the nozzle under the cylinder head covers and eliminate the leak

- Increased clearances in the main and connecting rod bearings of the crankshaft as a result of wear or destruction of the liners

Replace the crankshaft bearing shell, grind the shaft journals if necessary

Elevated fluid temperature in the cooling system

Before looking for the cause of the malfunction, make sure there is enough coolant

- Loosening the tension of the water pump drive belt

Adjust belt tension

- Water pump belt wear

Change the belt

- Violation of the tightness of the liquid path of the cooling system


- Radiator cap gasket rupture

Replace gasket

- Faulty thermostats

replace thermostats

- Radiator pollution

Clean the radiator

- The fan does not turn on

Check the position of the fan control lever and set it to the "B" position.

If the fan does not turn on, the switch is faulty.

- Faulty fan clutch switch

Replace thermal force sensor TS-103

- The fan does not turn off

Set the switch to the "O" position. If the fan does not turn off, the drain holes in the fan drive are coked. Repair or replace the drive.

Water gets into the lubrication system

- Leakage on rubber rings of cylinder liners

Replace defective O-rings

- Destruction of the cylinder head gasket

Replace defective gasket

- Violation of the tightness of the liquid-oil heat exchanger

Remove the heat exchanger from the engine and eliminate leakage

- Violation of the tightness of the sealing gasket of the cylinder head of the pneumatic compressor

Replace gasket

Extraneous noises in the turbocharger:

- Rotor touching on stationary parts

Remove turbocharger for repair or replacement

The current indicator shows the discharge current at rated crankshaft speed

- Slippage of drive belts

Tighten the belts, making sure the ball bearings are working

- Malfunction in the wiring or contact connections to the generator and the regulator


- Brushes get stuck in the brush holder

Remove the screws of the brush holder and clean the brushes and brush holder

- Contact rings of the generator are dirty or oily

Wipe the rings with a cloth soaked in gasoline, if the dirt cannot be removed, clean with fine-grained sandpaper and wipe again

- The brushes are worn out

Replace brushes

- Soldering wires from rings or breakage of the excitation coil

Solder the wire, replace the rotor if broken

- Malfunction (breakdown or breakage) of the diodes of the rectifier unit

Check and if necessary replace the rectifier unit

- Faulty voltage regulator

Replace voltage regulator

- Faulty battery

Check and, if necessary, replace the battery

- Open or short circuit in the stator winding

Check the stator windings. In the event of an open or short circuit, replace the stator

Excessively high charging current (ammeter goes off scale):

- Faulty voltage regulator

Replace voltage regulator

- Shorting the terminal "Ш" (shunt wire) of the generator or regulator to ground

Remove closure

Noise or knock in the generator:

- Bearing parts worn or destroyed

Replace defective bearing

- The presence of a foreign object in the generator

Remove foreign object

- Fan bent

Straighten bent fan areas

- Excessive tension or wear of drive belts

Adjust belt tension and correct misalignment

Generator bearings are overheating:

- Excessive tension of drive belts

Loosen the belts

When turned on, the starter slowly turns the crankshaft:

- Discharged or defective battery

Charge or change battery

- Hanging brushes, burnt collector

To carry out preventive maintenance of the brush-collector assembly

The starter does not work (when it is turned on, the headlights do not weaken):

- Lack of contact between the brushes and the commutator

Wipe the collector with a cloth soaked in gasoline or clean the collector with glass sandpaper. Clean the sides of the brushes or replace the brushes with new ones. Check the condition of the brush springs and replace them if they are defective.

Check if the brushes in the brush holders are jamming

- Open circuit or wiring fault

Check starter circuit and troubleshoot

The relay works intermittently (turns on the starter and turns it off immediately):

- Low battery

Charge or replace battery

- Break of the holding winding of the relay

Replace relay

When the starter is turned on, a characteristic grinding of metal is heard:

- The teeth of the starter gear or flywheel ring are clogged and the gear does not engage

Replace defective parts

- Loose fastening of the starter to the engine

Tighten the starter mounting bolts

- Relay adjustment broken

Adjust starter relay

The starter works but does not crank the engine:

- Breakage of the teeth of the starter gear or flywheel crown

Replace defective parts

- Drive failed

Replace Drive

When the EFU is switched on to the warm-up mode, the ammeter needle on the instrument panel does not deviate:

- Rupture of the electrical supply circuit of torch pin candles due to lack of contact in the wires or burnout of the spirals of both candles

Turn on the EFU to the preheating mode, check for voltage between the spark plug terminal and ground.

If voltage is present, replace spark plugs. With absence voltage, check the entire circuit and tighten the wire contacts

When the EFU is switched on to the preheating mode, the ammeter needle on the instrument panel shows almost half the discharge current compared to the normal operation of the EFU:

- Burnout of the spiral of the filament element in one of the torch pin candles

Check the resistance of the flare plugs.

If a faulty spark plug is found, replace both spark plugs

When the EFU is switched on to the preheating mode, the ammeter needle on the instrument panel shows a large discharge current compared to the normal operation of the EFU:

- Closing the helix of the filament element of the torch pin candle to the pin

Check the resistance of the flare plugs. If a faulty spark plug is found, replace it

When checking the operation of the EFU, there is no torch in the engine intake pipe:

- Insufficient engine speed (less than 50 rpm) due to low engine oil temperature or low battery electrolyte temperature, as well as a large degree of their discharge

Check engine speed. At a speed of less than 50 rpm, replace the batteries or warm up the engine with a preheater

- Malfunction in the electrical circuit

Check the electrical circuit of the EFU and fix the problem

- Malfunction in the fuel supply system

Check the tightness of the engine fuel system by cutting off the fuel by pumping it with a manual booster pump or by checking the tightness of the system with a pressure gauge connected.

After pumping to the opening pressure of the bypass valve on the injection pump and holding for two minutes, the pressure in the system should not be lower than 0.1 kgf / cm 2. If the pressure is lower, check the operation of the valves on the FTOT and injection pump

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